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Airway Redox Homeostasis and Inflammation Gone Awry: From Molecular Pathogenesis to Emerging Therapeutics in Respiratory Pathology

Immune-Inflammatory Processes and Gene Therapeutics Group, IDIBELL, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, 08908 Barcelona, Spain
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(23), 9317; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21239317
Received: 20 November 2020 / Accepted: 5 December 2020 / Published: 7 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
As aerobic organisms, we are continuously and throughout our lifetime subjected to an oxidizing atmosphere and, most often, to environmental threats. The lung is the internal organ most highly exposed to this milieu. Therefore, it has evolved to confront both oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a variety of pollutants, pathogens, and allergens that promote inflammation and can harm the airways to different degrees. Indeed, an excess of ROS, generated intrinsically or from external sources, can imprint direct damage to key structural cell components (nucleic acids, sugars, lipids, and proteins) and indirectly perturb ROS-mediated signaling in lung epithelia, impairing its homeostasis. These early events complemented with efficient recognition of pathogen- or damage-associated recognition patterns by the airway resident cells alert the immune system, which mounts an inflammatory response to remove the hazards, including collateral dead cells and cellular debris, in an attempt to return to homeostatic conditions. Thus, any major or chronic dysregulation of the redox balance, the air–liquid interface, or defects in epithelial proteins impairing mucociliary clearance or other defense systems may lead to airway damage. Here, we review our understanding of the key role of oxidative stress and inflammation in respiratory pathology, and extensively report current and future trends in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory treatments focusing on the following major acute and chronic lung diseases: acute lung injury/respiratory distress syndrome, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis, and cystic fibrosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: oxidative stress; inflammation; respiratory diseases; therapeutic strategies oxidative stress; inflammation; respiratory diseases; therapeutic strategies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Checa, J.; Aran, J.M. Airway Redox Homeostasis and Inflammation Gone Awry: From Molecular Pathogenesis to Emerging Therapeutics in Respiratory Pathology. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 9317. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21239317

AMA Style

Checa J, Aran JM. Airway Redox Homeostasis and Inflammation Gone Awry: From Molecular Pathogenesis to Emerging Therapeutics in Respiratory Pathology. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(23):9317. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21239317

Chicago/Turabian Style

Checa, Javier, and Josep M. Aran 2020. "Airway Redox Homeostasis and Inflammation Gone Awry: From Molecular Pathogenesis to Emerging Therapeutics in Respiratory Pathology" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 23: 9317. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21239317

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