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Adaptive Immune Responses in Human Atherosclerosis

by 1,2,*, 1,3 and 1,3,4
Department of Advanced Clinical and Translational Cardiovascular Imaging, Harry Perkins Institute of Medical Research, Murdoch 6150, Australia
Department of Microbiology, Pathwest Laboratory Medicine, Murdoch 6150, Australia
School of Medicine, University of Western Australia, Nedlands 6009, Australia
Department of Cardiology, Fiona Stanley Hospital, Murdoch 6150, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(23), 9322;
Received: 29 October 2020 / Revised: 27 November 2020 / Accepted: 2 December 2020 / Published: 7 December 2020
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is initiated by the deposition and accumulation of low-density lipoproteins in the artery wall. In this review, we will discuss the role of T- and B-cells in human plaques at different stages of atherosclerosis and the utility of profiling circulating immune cells to monitor atherosclerosis progression. Evidence supports a proatherogenic role for intraplaque T helper type 1 (Th1) cells, CD4+CD28null T-cells, and natural killer T-cells, whereas Th2 cells and regulatory T-cells (Treg) have an atheroprotective role. Several studies indicate that intraplaque T-cells are activated upon recognition of endogenous antigens including heat shock protein 60 and oxidized low-density lipoprotein, but antigens derived from pathogens can also trigger T-cell proliferation and cytokine production. Future studies are needed to assess whether circulating cellular biomarkers can improve identification of vulnerable lesions so that effective intervention can be implemented before clinical manifestations are apparent. View Full-Text
Keywords: human atherosclerosis; adaptive immune response; T-cells; B-cells human atherosclerosis; adaptive immune response; T-cells; B-cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, S.; Bartlett, B.; Dwivedi, G. Adaptive Immune Responses in Human Atherosclerosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 9322.

AMA Style

Lee S, Bartlett B, Dwivedi G. Adaptive Immune Responses in Human Atherosclerosis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(23):9322.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Silvia, Benjamin Bartlett, and Girish Dwivedi. 2020. "Adaptive Immune Responses in Human Atherosclerosis" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 23: 9322.

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