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Secondary Metabolites of the Rice Blast Fungus Pyricularia oryzae: Biosynthesis and Biological Function

Regulation of Secondary Metabolism in the Penicillium Genus

Toxalim (Research Centre in Food Toxicology), Université de Toulouse, INRAE, ENVT, INP-Purpan, UPS, 31027 Toulouse, France
Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), member of Food2Know, Brusselsesteenweg 370, 9090 Melle, Belgium
Centre D’analyse et de Recherche, Unité de Recherche Technologies et Valorisations Agro-Alimentaires, Faculté des Sciences, Université Saint-Joseph, P.O. Box 17-5208, Mar Mikhael, Beirut 1104, Lebanon
Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Life and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Sciences I, Lebanese University, Hadath Campus, P.O. Box 5, Beirut 1104, Lebanon
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(24), 9462;
Received: 9 November 2020 / Revised: 3 December 2020 / Accepted: 8 December 2020 / Published: 12 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Biology and Chemistry of Mycotoxins and Phytotoxins)
Penicillium, one of the most common fungi occurring in a diverse range of habitats, has a worldwide distribution and a large economic impact on human health. Hundreds of the species belonging to this genus cause disastrous decay in food crops and are able to produce a varied range of secondary metabolites, from which we can distinguish harmful mycotoxins. Some Penicillium species are considered to be important producers of patulin and ochratoxin A, two well-known mycotoxins. The production of these mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites is controlled and regulated by different mechanisms. The aim of this review is to highlight the different levels of regulation of secondary metabolites in the Penicillium genus. View Full-Text
Keywords: Penicillium; secondary metabolism; regulation; virulence; control of gene expression; transcription factors Penicillium; secondary metabolism; regulation; virulence; control of gene expression; transcription factors
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MDPI and ACS Style

El Hajj Assaf, C.; Zetina-Serrano, C.; Tahtah, N.; Khoury, A.E.; Atoui, A.; Oswald, I.P.; Puel, O.; Lorber, S. Regulation of Secondary Metabolism in the Penicillium Genus. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 9462.

AMA Style

El Hajj Assaf C, Zetina-Serrano C, Tahtah N, Khoury AE, Atoui A, Oswald IP, Puel O, Lorber S. Regulation of Secondary Metabolism in the Penicillium Genus. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(24):9462.

Chicago/Turabian Style

El Hajj Assaf, Christelle, Chrystian Zetina-Serrano, Nadia Tahtah, André E. Khoury, Ali Atoui, Isabelle P. Oswald, Olivier Puel, and Sophie Lorber. 2020. "Regulation of Secondary Metabolism in the Penicillium Genus" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 24: 9462.

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