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Sodium Intake and Chronic Kidney Disease

Sodium Intake and Heart Failure

by 1 and 2,3,*
Lifespan Cardiovascular Institute, Warren Alpert Medical School at Brown University, Providence, RI 02914, USA
Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA 02132, USA
Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(24), 9474;
Received: 3 November 2020 / Revised: 5 December 2020 / Accepted: 10 December 2020 / Published: 13 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sodium Intake and Related Diseases)
Sodium is an essential mineral and nutrient used in dietary practices across the world and is important to maintain proper blood volume and blood pressure. A high sodium diet is associated with increased expression of β—myosin heavy chain, decreased expression of α/β—myosin heavy chain, increased myocyte enhancer factor 2/nuclear factor of activated T cell transcriptional activity, and increased salt-inducible kinase 1 expression, which leads to alteration in myocardial mechanical performance. A high sodium diet is also associated with alterations in various proteins responsible for calcium homeostasis and myocardial contractility. Excessive sodium intake is associated with the development of a variety of comorbidities including hypertension, chronic kidney disease, stroke, and cardiovascular diseases. While the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/Heart Failure Society of America guidelines recommend limiting sodium intake to both prevent and manage heart failure, the evidence behind such recommendations is unclear. Our review article highlights evidence and underlying mechanisms favoring and contradicting limiting sodium intake in heart failure. View Full-Text
Keywords: sodium; salt; heart failure; ambulatory heart failure; epidemiological studies sodium; salt; heart failure; ambulatory heart failure; epidemiological studies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Patel, Y.; Joseph, J. Sodium Intake and Heart Failure. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 9474.

AMA Style

Patel Y, Joseph J. Sodium Intake and Heart Failure. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(24):9474.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Patel, Yash, and Jacob Joseph. 2020. "Sodium Intake and Heart Failure" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 24: 9474.

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