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Article

TGF-β Serum Levels in Diabetic Retinopathy Patients and the Role of Anti-VEGF Therapy

1
Department of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neuroscience, Ophthalmology Section, University of Palermo, 90133 Palermo, Italy
2
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
3
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
4
Department of Surgical Science, Eye Clinic, University of Torino, 10124 Torino, Italy
5
Department of Ophthalmology, SS Annunziata Hospital, 74121 Taranto, Italy
6
Center for Research in Ocular Pharmacology-CERFO, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(24), 9558; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21249558
Received: 24 November 2020 / Revised: 4 December 2020 / Accepted: 12 December 2020 / Published: 15 December 2020
Transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR), particularly in the late phase of disease. The aim of the present study was to validate serum TGFβ1 as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of DR stages. Thirty-eight subjects were enrolled and, after diagnosis and evaluation of inclusion and exclusion criteria, were assigned to six groups: (1) healthy age-matched control, (2) diabetic without DR, (3) non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) naïve to treatment, (4) NPDR treated with intravitreal (IVT) aflibercept, (5) proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) naïve to treatment and (6) PDR treated with IVT aflibercept. Serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), placental growth factor (PlGF) and TGFβ1 were measured by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Foveal macular thickness (FMT) in enrolled subjects was evaluated by means of structural-optical coherence tomography (S-OCT). VEGF-A serum levels decreased in NPDR and PDR patients treated with aflibercept, compared to naïve DR patients. PlGF serum levels were modulated only in aflibercept-treated NPDR patients. Particularly, TGFβ1 serum levels were predictive of disease progression from NPDR to PDR. A Multivariate ANOVA analysis (M-ANOVA) was also carried out to assess the effects of fixed factors on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, TGFβ1, and diabetes duration. In conclusion, our data have strengthened the hypothesis that TGFβ1 would be a biomarker and pharmacological target of diabetic retinopathy. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetic retinopathy; serum biomarkers; anti-VEGFA; TGFβ diabetic retinopathy; serum biomarkers; anti-VEGFA; TGFβ
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bonfiglio, V.; Platania, C.B.M.; Lazzara, F.; Conti, F.; Pizzo, C.; Reibaldi, M.; Russo, A.; Fallico, M.; Ortisi, E.; Pignatelli, F.; Longo, A.; Avitabile, T.; Drago, F.; Bucolo, C. TGF-β Serum Levels in Diabetic Retinopathy Patients and the Role of Anti-VEGF Therapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 9558. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21249558

AMA Style

Bonfiglio V, Platania CBM, Lazzara F, Conti F, Pizzo C, Reibaldi M, Russo A, Fallico M, Ortisi E, Pignatelli F, Longo A, Avitabile T, Drago F, Bucolo C. TGF-β Serum Levels in Diabetic Retinopathy Patients and the Role of Anti-VEGF Therapy. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(24):9558. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21249558

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bonfiglio, Vincenza, Chiara B.M. Platania, Francesca Lazzara, Federica Conti, Corrado Pizzo, Michele Reibaldi, Andrea Russo, Matteo Fallico, Elina Ortisi, Francesco Pignatelli, Antonio Longo, Teresio Avitabile, Filippo Drago, and Claudio Bucolo. 2020. "TGF-β Serum Levels in Diabetic Retinopathy Patients and the Role of Anti-VEGF Therapy" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 24: 9558. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21249558

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