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Roles of Lysyl Oxidase Family Members in the Tumor Microenvironment and Progression of Liver Cancer

1
Research Assistant Center, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan
2
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung 813, Taiwan
3
Institute of BioPharmaceutical Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan
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Department of Anesthesiology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
5
Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
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Department of Pathology, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan
7
School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 242, Taiwan
8
Department of Health Food, Chung Chou University of Science and Technology, Changhua 510, Taiwan
9
National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, Tainan 704, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(24), 9751; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21249751
Received: 20 November 2020 / Revised: 8 December 2020 / Accepted: 17 December 2020 / Published: 21 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Interfaces in Gastrointestinal Cancer)
The lysyl oxidase (LOX) family members are secreted copper-dependent amine oxidases, comprised of five paralogues: LOX and LOX-like l-4 (LOXL1-4), which are characterized by catalytic activity contributing to the remodeling of the cross-linking of the structural extracellular matrix (ECM). ECM remodeling plays a key role in the angiogenesis surrounding tumors, whereby a corrupt tumor microenvironment (TME) takes shape. Primary liver cancer includes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), ranked as the seventh most common cancer globally, with limited therapeutic options for advanced stages. In recent years, a growing body of evidence has revealed the key roles of LOX family members in the pathogenesis of liver cancer and the shaping of TME, indicating their notable potential as therapeutic targets. We herein review the clinical value and novel biological roles of LOX family members in tumor progression and the TME of liver cancers. In addition, we highlight recent insights into their mechanisms and their potential involvement in the development of target therapy for liver cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: liver cancer; hepatocellular carcinoma; cholangiocarcinoma; lysyl oxidase family members; tumor microenvironment liver cancer; hepatocellular carcinoma; cholangiocarcinoma; lysyl oxidase family members; tumor microenvironment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lin, H.-Y.; Li, C.-J.; Yang, Y.-L.; Huang, Y.-H.; Hsiau, Y.-T.; Chu, P.-Y. Roles of Lysyl Oxidase Family Members in the Tumor Microenvironment and Progression of Liver Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 9751. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21249751

AMA Style

Lin H-Y, Li C-J, Yang Y-L, Huang Y-H, Hsiau Y-T, Chu P-Y. Roles of Lysyl Oxidase Family Members in the Tumor Microenvironment and Progression of Liver Cancer. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(24):9751. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21249751

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lin, Hung-Yu, Chia-Jung Li, Ya-Ling Yang, Ying-Hsien Huang, Ya-Tze Hsiau, and Pei-Yi Chu. 2020. "Roles of Lysyl Oxidase Family Members in the Tumor Microenvironment and Progression of Liver Cancer" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 24: 9751. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21249751

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