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Review

Chromium-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation by Altering the Enzymatic Antioxidant System and Associated Cytotoxic, Genotoxic, Ultrastructural, and Photosynthetic Changes in Plants

by 1, 1,* and 2,*
1
Key Laboratory of Geospatial Technology for the Middle and Lower Yellow River Regions, College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, China
2
Zhejiang Key Lab of Crop Germplasm, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 728; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21030728
Received: 26 December 2019 / Revised: 16 January 2020 / Accepted: 17 January 2020 / Published: 22 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ROS and Abiotic Stress in Plants)
Chromium (Cr) is one of the top seven toxic heavy metals, being ranked 21st among the abundantly found metals in the earth’s crust. A huge amount of Cr releases from various industries and Cr mines, which is accumulating in the agricultural land, is significantly reducing the crop development, growth, and yield. Chromium mediates phytotoxicity either by direct interaction with different plant parts and metabolic pathways or it generates internal stress by inducing the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, the role of Cr-induced ROS in the phytotoxicity is very important. In the current study, we reviewed the most recent publications regarding Cr-induced ROS, Cr-induced alteration in the enzymatic antioxidant system, Cr-induced lipid peroxidation and cell membrane damage, Cr-induced DNA damage and genotoxicity, Cr-induced ultrastructural changes in cell and subcellular level, and Cr-induced alterations in photosynthesis and photosynthetic apparatus. Taken together, we conclude that Cr-induced ROS and the suppression of the enzymatic antioxidant system actually mediate Cr-induced cytotoxic, genotoxic, ultrastructural, and photosynthetic changes in plants. View Full-Text
Keywords: reactive oxygen species; antioxidants; cytotoxicity; genotoxicity; photosynthesis reactive oxygen species; antioxidants; cytotoxicity; genotoxicity; photosynthesis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wakeel, A.; Xu, M.; Gan, Y. Chromium-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation by Altering the Enzymatic Antioxidant System and Associated Cytotoxic, Genotoxic, Ultrastructural, and Photosynthetic Changes in Plants. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 728. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21030728

AMA Style

Wakeel A, Xu M, Gan Y. Chromium-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation by Altering the Enzymatic Antioxidant System and Associated Cytotoxic, Genotoxic, Ultrastructural, and Photosynthetic Changes in Plants. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(3):728. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21030728

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wakeel, Abdul, Ming Xu, and Yinbo Gan. 2020. "Chromium-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation by Altering the Enzymatic Antioxidant System and Associated Cytotoxic, Genotoxic, Ultrastructural, and Photosynthetic Changes in Plants" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 3: 728. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21030728

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