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Article

Assessment of the Phenolic Profiles, Hypoglycemic Activity, and Molecular Mechanism of Different Highland Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Varieties

by 1, 1,2,*, 3 and 3,*
1
Overseas Expertise Introduction Center for Discipline Innovation of Food Nutrition and Human Health (111 Center), School of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510641, China
2
Guangdong ERA Food & Life Health Research Institute, Guangzhou 510670, China
3
Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1175; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21041175
Received: 31 December 2019 / Revised: 3 February 2020 / Accepted: 10 February 2020 / Published: 11 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diabetes)
The phenolic profiles, hypoglycemic activity, and molecular mechanism of the effect on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) of four highland barley varieties were investigated in the present study. The fundamental phenolics in highland barley were ferulic acid, naringin, and catechin, which mainly existed in bound form. These varieties showed favorable hypoglycemic activity via inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities, enhancement of glucose consumption, glycogen accumulation and glycogen synthase 2 (GYS2) activity, and down-regulation of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activities. Specifically, ZQ320 variety exhibited the strongest hypoglycemic activity compared to the other varieties. Highland barley phenolics could inhibit gluconeogenesis and motivate glycogen synthesis via down-regulating the gene expression of G6Pase, PEPCK, and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), while activating the expression of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), serine/threonine kinase (Akt), GYS2, and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4). Therefore, phenolics from highland barley could be served as suitable candidates for therapeutic agent in T2DM to improve human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: highland barley; phenolic profiles; hypoglycemic activity; molecular mechanism highland barley; phenolic profiles; hypoglycemic activity; molecular mechanism
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MDPI and ACS Style

Deng, N.; Zheng, B.; Li, T.; Liu, R.H. Assessment of the Phenolic Profiles, Hypoglycemic Activity, and Molecular Mechanism of Different Highland Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Varieties. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 1175. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21041175

AMA Style

Deng N, Zheng B, Li T, Liu RH. Assessment of the Phenolic Profiles, Hypoglycemic Activity, and Molecular Mechanism of Different Highland Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Varieties. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(4):1175. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21041175

Chicago/Turabian Style

Deng, Na, Bisheng Zheng, Tong Li, and Rui H. Liu. 2020. "Assessment of the Phenolic Profiles, Hypoglycemic Activity, and Molecular Mechanism of Different Highland Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Varieties" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 4: 1175. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21041175

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