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Article

Nanoplastics Cause Neurobehavioral Impairments, Reproductive and Oxidative Damages, and Biomarker Responses in Zebrafish: Throwing up Alarms of Wide Spread Health Risk of Exposure

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Department of Chemistry, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan
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Department of Bioscience Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan
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Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan
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Department of Chemistry, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 11114, Taiwan
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Department of Biological Science & Technology, College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan
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Department of Applied Chemistry, National Pingtung University, Pingtung 90003, Taiwan
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Center for Nanotechnology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1410; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21041410
Received: 19 January 2020 / Revised: 15 February 2020 / Accepted: 16 February 2020 / Published: 19 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology and Nanosafety 2.0)
Plastic pollution is a growing global emergency and it could serve as a geological indicator of the Anthropocene era. Microplastics are potentially more hazardous than macroplastics, as the former can permeate biological membranes. The toxicity of microplastic exposure on humans and aquatic organisms has been documented, but the toxicity and behavioral changes of nanoplastics (NPs) in mammals are scarce. In spite of their small size, nanoplastics have an enormous surface area, which bears the potential to bind even bigger amounts of toxic compounds in comparison to microplastics. Here, we used polystyrene nanoplastics (PS-NPs) (diameter size at ~70 nm) to investigate the neurobehavioral alterations, tissue distribution, accumulation, and specific health risk of nanoplastics in adult zebrafish. The results demonstrated that PS-NPs accumulated in gonads, intestine, liver, and brain with a tissue distribution pattern that was greatly dependent on the size and shape of the NPs particle. Importantly, an analysis of multiple behavior endpoints and different biochemical biomarkers evidenced that PS-NPs exposure induced disturbance of lipid and energy metabolism as well as oxidative stress and tissue accumulation. Pronounced behavior alterations in their locomotion activity, aggressiveness, shoal formation, and predator avoidance behavior were exhibited by the high concentration of the PS-NPs group, along with the dysregulated circadian rhythm locomotion activity after its chronic exposure. Moreover, several important neurotransmitter biomarkers for neurotoxicity investigation were significantly altered after one week of PS-NPs exposure and these significant changes may indicate the potential toxicity from PS-NPs exposure. In addition, after ~1-month incubation, the fluorescence spectroscopy results revealed the accumulation and distribution of PS-NPs across zebrafish tissues, especially in gonads, which would possibly further affect fish reproductive function. Overall, our results provided new evidence for the adverse consequences of PS-NPs-induced behavioral dysregulation and changes at the molecular level that eventually reduce the survival fitness of zebrafish in the ecosystem. View Full-Text
Keywords: polystyrene; nanoplastics; neurotoxicity; behavior test; ecotoxicity; oxidative stress; zebrafish polystyrene; nanoplastics; neurotoxicity; behavior test; ecotoxicity; oxidative stress; zebrafish
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sarasamma, S.; Audira, G.; Siregar, P.; Malhotra, N.; Lai, Y.-H.; Liang, S.-T.; Chen, J.-R.; Chen, K.H.-C.; Hsiao, C.-D. Nanoplastics Cause Neurobehavioral Impairments, Reproductive and Oxidative Damages, and Biomarker Responses in Zebrafish: Throwing up Alarms of Wide Spread Health Risk of Exposure. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 1410. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21041410

AMA Style

Sarasamma S, Audira G, Siregar P, Malhotra N, Lai Y-H, Liang S-T, Chen J-R, Chen KH-C, Hsiao C-D. Nanoplastics Cause Neurobehavioral Impairments, Reproductive and Oxidative Damages, and Biomarker Responses in Zebrafish: Throwing up Alarms of Wide Spread Health Risk of Exposure. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(4):1410. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21041410

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sarasamma, Sreeja, Gilbert Audira, Petrus Siregar, Nemi Malhotra, Yu-Heng Lai, Sung-Tzu Liang, Jung-Ren Chen, Kelvin H.-C. Chen, and Chung-Der Hsiao. 2020. "Nanoplastics Cause Neurobehavioral Impairments, Reproductive and Oxidative Damages, and Biomarker Responses in Zebrafish: Throwing up Alarms of Wide Spread Health Risk of Exposure" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 4: 1410. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21041410

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