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Circulating Tumor Cells in Early and Advanced Breast Cancer; Biology and Prognostic Value
Review

Heterogeneity of Circulating Tumor Cells in Breast Cancer: Identifying Metastatic Seeds

Laboratory of Cancer Progression Biology, Cancer Research Institute, Tomsk National Research Medical Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, 634009 Tomsk, Russia
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(5), 1696; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21051696
Received: 5 February 2020 / Revised: 27 February 2020 / Accepted: 28 February 2020 / Published: 2 March 2020
Metastasis being the main cause of breast cancer (BC) mortality represents the complex and multistage process. The entrance of tumor cells into the blood vessels and the appearance of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) seeding and colonizing distant tissues and organs are one of the key stages in the metastatic cascade. Like the primary tumor, CTCs are extremely heterogeneous and presented by clusters and individual cells which consist of phenotypically and genetically distinct subpopulations. However, among this diversity, only a small number of CTCs is able to survive in the bloodstream and to form metastases. The identification of the metastasis-initiating CTCs is believed to be a critical issue in developing therapeutic strategies against metastatic disease. In this review, we summarize the available literature addressing morphological, phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of CTCs and the molecular makeup of specific subpopulations associated with BC metastasis. Special attention is paid to the need for in vitro and in vivo studies to confirm the tumorigenic and metastatic potential of metastasis-associating CTCs. Finally, we consider treatment approaches that could be effective to eradicate metastatic CTCs and to prevent metastasis. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; circulating tumor cells; heterogeneity; metastasis breast cancer; circulating tumor cells; heterogeneity; metastasis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Menyailo, M.E.; Tretyakova, M.S.; Denisov, E.V. Heterogeneity of Circulating Tumor Cells in Breast Cancer: Identifying Metastatic Seeds. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 1696. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21051696

AMA Style

Menyailo ME, Tretyakova MS, Denisov EV. Heterogeneity of Circulating Tumor Cells in Breast Cancer: Identifying Metastatic Seeds. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(5):1696. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21051696

Chicago/Turabian Style

Menyailo, Maxim E., Maria S. Tretyakova, and Evgeny V. Denisov 2020. "Heterogeneity of Circulating Tumor Cells in Breast Cancer: Identifying Metastatic Seeds" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 5: 1696. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21051696

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