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Article

Differential Cytotoxicity Induced by Transition Metal Oxide Nanoparticles is a Function of Cell Killing and Suppression of Cell Proliferation

1
Department of Biological Sciences, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409, USA
2
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA
3
Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(5), 1731; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21051731
Received: 12 February 2020 / Revised: 29 February 2020 / Accepted: 1 March 2020 / Published: 3 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology and Nanosafety 2.0)
The application of nanoparticles (NPs) in industry is on the rise, along with the potential for human exposure. While the toxicity of microscale equivalents has been studied, nanoscale materials exhibit different properties and bodily uptake, which limits the prediction ability of microscale models. Here, we examine the cytotoxicity of seven transition metal oxide NPs in the fourth period of the periodic table of the chemical elements. We hypothesized that NP-mediated cytotoxicity is a function of cell killing and suppression of cell proliferation. To test our hypothesis, transition metal oxide NPs were tested in a human lung cancer cell model (A549). Cells were exposed to a series of concentrations of TiO2, Cr2O3, Mn2O3, Fe2O3, NiO, CuO, or ZnO for either 24 or 48 h. All NPs aside from Cr2O3 and Fe2O3 showed a time- and dose-dependent decrease in viability. All NPs significantly inhibited cellular proliferation. The trend of cytotoxicity was in parallel with that of proliferative inhibition. Toxicity was ranked according to severity of cellular responses, revealing a strong correlation between viability, proliferation, and apoptosis. Cell cycle alteration was observed in the most toxic NPs, which may have contributed to promoting apoptosis and suppressing cell division rate. Collectively, our data support the hypothesis that cell killing and cell proliferative inhibition are essential independent variables in NP-mediated cytotoxicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticle; cell proliferation; transition metal oxide; cell cycle; apoptosis nanoparticle; cell proliferation; transition metal oxide; cell cycle; apoptosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tolliver, L.M.; Holl, N.J.; Hou, F.Y.S.; Lee, H.-J.; Cambre, M.H.; Huang, Y.-W. Differential Cytotoxicity Induced by Transition Metal Oxide Nanoparticles is a Function of Cell Killing and Suppression of Cell Proliferation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 1731. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21051731

AMA Style

Tolliver LM, Holl NJ, Hou FYS, Lee H-J, Cambre MH, Huang Y-W. Differential Cytotoxicity Induced by Transition Metal Oxide Nanoparticles is a Function of Cell Killing and Suppression of Cell Proliferation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(5):1731. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21051731

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tolliver, Larry M., Natalie J. Holl, Fang Y.S. Hou, Han-Jung Lee, Melissa H. Cambre, and Yue-Wern Huang. 2020. "Differential Cytotoxicity Induced by Transition Metal Oxide Nanoparticles is a Function of Cell Killing and Suppression of Cell Proliferation" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 5: 1731. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21051731

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