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Review

Brain Sex Differences Related to Gender Identity Development: Genes or Hormones?

1
Andrology, Women’s Endocrinology and Gender Incongruence, Careggi University Hospital, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence, Italy
2
Endocrinology, Careggi University Hospital, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(6), 2123; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21062123
Received: 8 January 2020 / Revised: 21 February 2020 / Accepted: 28 February 2020 / Published: 19 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Aspects of Sex Development in Mammals: New Insight)
The complex process of sexual differentiation is known to be influenced by biological and environmental determinants. The present review has the aim of summarizing the most relevant studies on the biological basis of sexual development, and in particular, it focuses on the impact of sex hormones and genetic background on the development of sexual differentiation and gender identity. The authors conducted a search of published studies on Medline (from January 1948 to December 2019). The evidence suggests that the sexual dimorphic brain could be the anatomical substrate of psychosexual development, on which gonadal hormones may have a shaping role during prenatal and pubertal periods. Additionally, according to several heritability studies, genetic components may have a role, but a promising candidate gene has not been identified. Even though growing evidence underlines the primary role of biological factors on psychosexual development, further studies are necessary to better explain their complex interactions. View Full-Text
Keywords: genes; hormones; sexual differentiation; brain sexual dimorphism; gender identity genes; hormones; sexual differentiation; brain sexual dimorphism; gender identity
MDPI and ACS Style

Ristori, J.; Cocchetti, C.; Romani, A.; Mazzoli, F.; Vignozzi, L.; Maggi, M.; Fisher, A.D. Brain Sex Differences Related to Gender Identity Development: Genes or Hormones? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 2123. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21062123

AMA Style

Ristori J, Cocchetti C, Romani A, Mazzoli F, Vignozzi L, Maggi M, Fisher AD. Brain Sex Differences Related to Gender Identity Development: Genes or Hormones? International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(6):2123. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21062123

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ristori, Jiska, Carlotta Cocchetti, Alessia Romani, Francesca Mazzoli, Linda Vignozzi, Mario Maggi, and Alessandra D. Fisher 2020. "Brain Sex Differences Related to Gender Identity Development: Genes or Hormones?" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 6: 2123. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21062123

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