Next Article in Journal
Lipotoxicity and Diabetic Nephropathy: Novel Mechanistic Insights and Therapeutic Opportunities
Next Article in Special Issue
Modes of Communication between T Cells and Relevance for Immune Responses
Previous Article in Journal
The Effect of Nanosystems on ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: Understanding the Influence of Nanosystems on Multidrug Resistance Protein-1 and P-glycoprotein
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effect of Pharmacological Inhibition of the Catalytic Activity of Phosphatases of Regenerating Liver in Early T Cell Receptor Signaling Dynamics and IL-2 Production
Review

Inducible Polarized Secretion of Exosomes in T and B Lymphocytes

1
Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas Alberto Sols CSIC-UAM, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28029 Madrid, Spain
2
Department of Metabolism and Cell Signalling, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas Alberto Sols CSIC-UAM, 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(7), 2631; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21072631
Received: 18 March 2020 / Revised: 5 April 2020 / Accepted: 7 April 2020 / Published: 10 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signaling and Organelle Polarization at the Immunological Synapse)
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles (EV) of endosomal origin (multivesicular bodies, MVB) constitutively released by many different eukaryotic cells by fusion of MVB to the plasma membrane. However, inducible exosome secretion controlled by cell surface receptors is restricted to very few cell types and a limited number of cell surface receptors. Among these, exosome secretion is induced in T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes when stimulated at the immune synapse (IS) via T-cell receptors (TCR) and B-cell receptors (BCR), respectively. IS formation by T and B lymphocytes constitutes a crucial event involved in antigen-specific, cellular, and humoral immune responses. Upon IS formation by T and B lymphocytes with antigen-presenting cells (APC), the convergence of MVB towards the microtubule organization center (MTOC), and MTOC polarization to the IS, are involved in polarized exosome secretion at the synaptic cleft. This specialized mechanism provides the immune system with a finely-tuned strategy to increase the specificity and efficiency of crucial secretory effector functions of B and T lymphocytes. As inducible exosome secretion by antigen-receptors is a critical and unique feature of the immune system this review considers the study of the traffic events leading to polarized exosome secretion at the IS and some of their biological consequences. View Full-Text
Keywords: exosomes; T lymphocytes; B lymphocytes; polarized secretion; immune synapse; T-cell receptor; B-cell receptor; multivesicular bodies; diacylglycerol; MHC-class II compartment exosomes; T lymphocytes; B lymphocytes; polarized secretion; immune synapse; T-cell receptor; B-cell receptor; multivesicular bodies; diacylglycerol; MHC-class II compartment
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Calvo, V.; Izquierdo, M. Inducible Polarized Secretion of Exosomes in T and B Lymphocytes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 2631. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21072631

AMA Style

Calvo V, Izquierdo M. Inducible Polarized Secretion of Exosomes in T and B Lymphocytes. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(7):2631. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21072631

Chicago/Turabian Style

Calvo, Victor; Izquierdo, Manuel. 2020. "Inducible Polarized Secretion of Exosomes in T and B Lymphocytes" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 7: 2631. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21072631

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop