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Current Advances in the Diagnostic Imaging of Atherosclerosis: Insights into the Pathophysiology of Vulnerable Plaque

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Pharmstandard Ventures, 123112 Moscow, Russia
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Department of Basic Research, Institute for Atherosclerosis Research, Skolkovo Innovative Center, 121609 Moscow, Russia
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Diabetes Research Center, Traditional Chinese Medicine School, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China
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Department of Molecular Basis of Ontogenesis, Belozersky Institute of Physical and Chemical Biology, Moscow State University, 119234 Moscow, Russia
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Federal Research and Clinical Center of Intensive Care Medicine and Rehabilitology, 109240 Moscow, Russia
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Laboratory of Angiopathology, Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, 125315 Moscow, Russia
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Laboratory of Infection Pathology and Molecular Microecology, Institute of Human Morphology, 117418 Moscow, Russia
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(8), 2992; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21082992
Received: 6 March 2020 / Revised: 2 April 2020 / Accepted: 15 April 2020 / Published: 23 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
Atherosclerosis is a lipoprotein-driven inflammatory disorder leading to a plaque formation at specific sites of the arterial tree. After decades of slow progression, atherosclerotic plaque rupture and formation of thrombi are the major factors responsible for the development of acute coronary syndromes (ACSs). In this regard, the detection of high-risk (vulnerable) plaques is an ultimate goal in the management of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Vulnerable plaques have specific morphological features that make their detection possible, hence allowing for identification of high-risk patients and the tailoring of therapy. Plaque ruptures predominantly occur amongst lesions characterized as thin-cap fibroatheromas (TCFA). Plaques without a rupture, such as plaque erosions, are also thrombi-forming lesions on the most frequent pathological intimal thickening or fibroatheromas. Many attempts to comprehensively identify vulnerable plaque constituents with different invasive and non-invasive imaging technologies have been made. In this review, advantages and limitations of invasive and non-invasive imaging modalities currently available for the identification of plaque components and morphologic features associated with plaque vulnerability, as well as their clinical diagnostic and prognostic value, were discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: atherosclerosis; vulnerable plaque; invasive imaging; non-invasive imaging atherosclerosis; vulnerable plaque; invasive imaging; non-invasive imaging
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mushenkova, N.V.; Summerhill, V.I.; Zhang, D.; Romanenko, E.B.; Grechko, A.V.; Orekhov, A.N. Current Advances in the Diagnostic Imaging of Atherosclerosis: Insights into the Pathophysiology of Vulnerable Plaque. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 2992. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21082992

AMA Style

Mushenkova NV, Summerhill VI, Zhang D, Romanenko EB, Grechko AV, Orekhov AN. Current Advances in the Diagnostic Imaging of Atherosclerosis: Insights into the Pathophysiology of Vulnerable Plaque. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(8):2992. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21082992

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mushenkova, Nataliya V., Volha I. Summerhill, Dongwei Zhang, Elena B. Romanenko, Andrey V. Grechko, and Alexander N. Orekhov 2020. "Current Advances in the Diagnostic Imaging of Atherosclerosis: Insights into the Pathophysiology of Vulnerable Plaque" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 8: 2992. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21082992

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