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Review

Roles of β-Endorphin in Stress, Behavior, Neuroinflammation, and Brain Energy Metabolism

Neurochemistry Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(1), 338; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22010338
Received: 21 November 2020 / Revised: 23 December 2020 / Accepted: 26 December 2020 / Published: 30 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms Underlying CNS Inflammation)
β-Endorphins are peptides that exert a wide variety of effects throughout the body. Produced through the cleavage pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), β-endorphins are the primarily agonist of mu opioid receptors, which can be found throughout the body, brain, and cells of the immune system that regulate a diverse set of systems. As an agonist of the body’s opioid receptors, β-endorphins are most noted for their potent analgesic effects, but they also have their involvement in reward-centric and homeostasis-restoring behaviors, among other effects. These effects have implicated the peptide in psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, making it a research target of interest. This review briefly summarizes the basics of endorphin function, goes over the behaviors and regulatory pathways it governs, and examines the variability of β-endorphin levels observed between normal and disease/disorder affected individuals. View Full-Text
Keywords: β-endorphins; behavior; brain energy metabolism; neurodegeneration; neuroinflammation; psychiatric disorders; stress β-endorphins; behavior; brain energy metabolism; neurodegeneration; neuroinflammation; psychiatric disorders; stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pilozzi, A.; Carro, C.; Huang, X. Roles of β-Endorphin in Stress, Behavior, Neuroinflammation, and Brain Energy Metabolism. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 338. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22010338

AMA Style

Pilozzi A, Carro C, Huang X. Roles of β-Endorphin in Stress, Behavior, Neuroinflammation, and Brain Energy Metabolism. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(1):338. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22010338

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pilozzi, Alexander, Caitlin Carro, and Xudong Huang. 2021. "Roles of β-Endorphin in Stress, Behavior, Neuroinflammation, and Brain Energy Metabolism" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 1: 338. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22010338

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