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Review

Immunity as Cornerstone of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: The Contribution of Oxidative Stress in the Disease Progression

1
Hepatogastroenterology Division, Department of Precision Medicine, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Via S. Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
2
C.U.R.E. (University Center for Liver Disease Research and Treatment), Liver Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, 71121 Foggia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(1), 436; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22010436
Received: 24 November 2020 / Revised: 18 December 2020 / Accepted: 30 December 2020 / Published: 4 January 2021
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and has become the major cause of chronic liver disease, especially in western countries. NAFLD encompasses a wide spectrum of hepatic histological alterations, from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis with a potential development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by lobular inflammation and fibrosis. Several studies reported that insulin resistance, redox unbalance, inflammation, and lipid metabolism dysregulation are involved in NAFLD progression. However, the mechanisms beyond the evolution of simple steatosis to NASH are not clearly understood yet. Recent findings suggest that different oxidized products, such as lipids, cholesterol, aldehydes and other macromolecules could drive the inflammation onset. On the other hand, new evidence indicates innate and adaptive immunity activation as the driving force in establishing liver inflammation and fibrosis. In this review, we discuss how immunity, triggered by oxidative products and promoting in turn oxidative stress in a vicious cycle, fuels NAFLD progression. Furthermore, we explored the emerging importance of immune cell metabolism in determining inflammation, describing the potential application of trained immune discoveries in the NASH pathological context. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; trained immunity; oxidative stress; hepatocellular carcinoma non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; trained immunity; oxidative stress; hepatocellular carcinoma
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dallio, M.; Sangineto, M.; Romeo, M.; Villani, R.; Romano, A.D.; Loguercio, C.; Serviddio, G.; Federico, A. Immunity as Cornerstone of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: The Contribution of Oxidative Stress in the Disease Progression. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 436. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22010436

AMA Style

Dallio M, Sangineto M, Romeo M, Villani R, Romano AD, Loguercio C, Serviddio G, Federico A. Immunity as Cornerstone of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: The Contribution of Oxidative Stress in the Disease Progression. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(1):436. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22010436

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dallio, Marcello, Moris Sangineto, Mario Romeo, Rosanna Villani, Antonino D. Romano, Carmelina Loguercio, Gaetano Serviddio, and Alessandro Federico. 2021. "Immunity as Cornerstone of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: The Contribution of Oxidative Stress in the Disease Progression" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 1: 436. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22010436

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