Next Article in Journal
Involvement of Chaperone Sigma1R in the Anxiolytic Effect of Fabomotizole
Previous Article in Journal
Lemur Tyrosine Kinases and Prostate Cancer: A Literature Review
Previous Article in Special Issue
Chemically and Green Synthesized ZnO Nanoparticles Alter Key Immunological Molecules in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Skin Mucus
Article

Processed Animal Proteins from Insect and Poultry By-Products in a Fish Meal-Free Diet for Rainbow Trout: Impact on Intestinal Microbiota and Inflammatory Markers

1
Nutrition and Nutrigenomics Unit, Department of Food Quality and Nutrition, Research and Innovation Center, Fondazione Edmund Mach, 38098 Trento, Italy
2
CIBIO—Department of Cellular, Computational and Integrative Biology, University of Trento, 38123 Trento, Italy
3
Aquaculture and Hydrobiology Unit, Technology Transfer Centre, Experiment and Technological Services Department, Fondazione Edmund Mach, 38098 Trento, Italy
4
Department of Agricultural, Food, Environmental and Animal Science, University of Udine, 33100 Udine, Italy
5
Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA), 00144 Roma, Italy
6
Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, 60131 Ancona, Italy
7
Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, University of Florence, 50144 Florence, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carlo C. Lazado
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 5454; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22115454
Received: 26 April 2021 / Revised: 17 May 2021 / Accepted: 18 May 2021 / Published: 21 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Mucosal Physiology and Immunology)
Sustainability of aquaculture is tied to the origin of feed ingredients. In search of sustainable fish meal-free formulations for rainbow trout, we evaluated the effect of Hermetia illucens meal (H) and poultry by-product meal (P), singly (10, 30, and 60% of either H or P) or in combination (10% H + 50% P, H10P50), as partial replacement of vegetable protein (VM) on gut microbiota (GM), inflammatory, and immune biomarkers. Fish fed the mixture H10P50 had the best growth performance. H, P, and especially the combination H10P50 partially restored α-diversity that was negatively affected by VM. Diets did not differ in the Firmicutes:Proteobacteria ratio, although the relative abundance of Gammaproteobacteria was reduced in H and was higher in P and in the fishmeal control. H had higher relative abundance of chitin-degrading Actinomyces and Bacillus, Dorea, and Enterococcus. Actinomyces was also higher in H feed, suggesting feed-chain microbiome transmission. P increased the relative abundance of protein degraders Paeniclostridium and Bacteroidales. IL-1β, IL-10, TGF-β, COX-2, and TCR-β gene expression in the midgut and head kidney and plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) revealed that the diets did not compromise the gut barrier function or induce inflammation. H, P, and H10P50 therefore appear valid protein sources in fishmeal-free aquafeeds. View Full-Text
Keywords: rainbow trout; aquaculture; sustainability; gut microbiota; inflammation; Hermetia illucens; poultry by-products; feed-borne microbiota rainbow trout; aquaculture; sustainability; gut microbiota; inflammation; Hermetia illucens; poultry by-products; feed-borne microbiota
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Gaudioso, G.; Marzorati, G.; Faccenda, F.; Weil, T.; Lunelli, F.; Cardinaletti, G.; Marino, G.; Olivotto, I.; Parisi, G.; Tibaldi, E.; Tuohy, K.M.; Fava, F. Processed Animal Proteins from Insect and Poultry By-Products in a Fish Meal-Free Diet for Rainbow Trout: Impact on Intestinal Microbiota and Inflammatory Markers. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 5454. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22115454

AMA Style

Gaudioso G, Marzorati G, Faccenda F, Weil T, Lunelli F, Cardinaletti G, Marino G, Olivotto I, Parisi G, Tibaldi E, Tuohy KM, Fava F. Processed Animal Proteins from Insect and Poultry By-Products in a Fish Meal-Free Diet for Rainbow Trout: Impact on Intestinal Microbiota and Inflammatory Markers. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(11):5454. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22115454

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gaudioso, Giulia, Giulia Marzorati, Filippo Faccenda, Tobias Weil, Fernando Lunelli, Gloriana Cardinaletti, Giovanna Marino, Ike Olivotto, Giuliana Parisi, Emilio Tibaldi, Kieran M. Tuohy, and Francesca Fava. 2021. "Processed Animal Proteins from Insect and Poultry By-Products in a Fish Meal-Free Diet for Rainbow Trout: Impact on Intestinal Microbiota and Inflammatory Markers" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 11: 5454. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22115454

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop