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Review

Coaggregation of Asthma and Type 1 Diabetes in Children: A Narrative Review

Department of Pediatrics, University of Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Tommaso Aversa and Benoit Gauthier
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 5757; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22115757
Received: 2 May 2021 / Revised: 20 May 2021 / Accepted: 25 May 2021 / Published: 28 May 2021
Asthma and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are two of the most frequent chronic diseases in children, representing a model of the atopic and autoimmune diseases respectively. These two groups of disorders are mediated by different immunological pathways, T helper (Th)1 for diabetes and Th2 for asthma. For many years, these two groups were thought to be mutually exclusive according to the Th1/Th2 paradigm. In children, the incidence of both diseases is steadily increasing worldwide. In this narrative review, we report the evidence of the potential link between asthma and T1DM in childhood. We discuss which molecular mechanisms could be involved in the link between asthma and T1DM, such as genetic predisposition, cytokine patterns, and environmental influences. Cytokine profile of children with asthma and T1DM shows an activation of both Th1 and Th2 pathways, suggesting a complex genetic-epigenetic interaction. In conclusion, in children, the potential link between asthma and T1DM needs further investigation to improve the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to these patients. The aim of this review is to invite the pediatricians to consider the potential copresence of these two disorders in clinical practice. View Full-Text
Keywords: asthma; type 1 diabetes; children; coaggregation; cytokines; Th1/Th2 paradigm; hygiene hypothesis; genetic; regulatory T lymphocytes asthma; type 1 diabetes; children; coaggregation; cytokines; Th1/Th2 paradigm; hygiene hypothesis; genetic; regulatory T lymphocytes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sgrazzutti, L.; Sansone, F.; Attanasi, M.; Di Pillo, S.; Chiarelli, F. Coaggregation of Asthma and Type 1 Diabetes in Children: A Narrative Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 5757. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22115757

AMA Style

Sgrazzutti L, Sansone F, Attanasi M, Di Pillo S, Chiarelli F. Coaggregation of Asthma and Type 1 Diabetes in Children: A Narrative Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(11):5757. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22115757

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sgrazzutti, Laura, Francesco Sansone, Marina Attanasi, Sabrina Di Pillo, and Francesco Chiarelli. 2021. "Coaggregation of Asthma and Type 1 Diabetes in Children: A Narrative Review" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 11: 5757. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22115757

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