Next Article in Journal
Curcumin-Loaded Nanoparticles Impair the Pro-Tumor Activity of Acid-Stressed MSC in an In Vitro Model of Osteosarcoma
Next Article in Special Issue
In Vitro Effects of Selective COX and LOX Inhibitors and Their Combinations with Antineoplastic Drugs in the Mouse Melanoma Cell Line B16F10
Previous Article in Journal
Coaggregation of Asthma and Type 1 Diabetes in Children: A Narrative Review
Previous Article in Special Issue
Influence of Tumor Microenvironment and Fibroblast Population Plasticity on Melanoma Growth, Therapy Resistance and Immunoescape
Review

How Neural Crest Transcription Factors Contribute to Melanoma Heterogeneity, Cellular Plasticity, and Treatment Resistance

1
Department of Dermatology, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), 91054 Erlangen, Germany
2
Comprehensive Cancer Center Erlangen-European Metropolitan Area of Nuremberg (CCC ER-EMN), 91054 Erlangen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Guendalina Lucarini
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 5761; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22115761
Received: 6 May 2021 / Revised: 24 May 2021 / Accepted: 26 May 2021 / Published: 28 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Melanoma Cellular Plasticity)
Cutaneous melanoma represents one of the deadliest types of skin cancer. The prognosis strongly depends on the disease stage, thus early detection is crucial. New therapies, including BRAF and MEK inhibitors and immunotherapies, have significantly improved the survival of patients in the last decade. However, intrinsic and acquired resistance is still a challenge. In this review, we discuss two major aspects that contribute to the aggressiveness of melanoma, namely, the embryonic origin of melanocytes and melanoma cells and cellular plasticity. First, we summarize the physiological function of epidermal melanocytes and their development from precursor cells that originate from the neural crest (NC). Next, we discuss the concepts of intratumoral heterogeneity, cellular plasticity, and phenotype switching that enable melanoma to adapt to changes in the tumor microenvironment and promote disease progression and drug resistance. Finally, we further dissect the connection of these two aspects by focusing on the transcriptional regulators MSX1, MITF, SOX10, PAX3, and FOXD3. These factors play a key role in NC initiation, NC cell migration, and melanocyte formation, and we discuss how they contribute to cellular plasticity and drug resistance in melanoma. View Full-Text
Keywords: melanoma; neural crest; MITF; MSX1; SOX10; PAX3; FOXD3; cellular plasticity; phenotype switch melanoma; neural crest; MITF; MSX1; SOX10; PAX3; FOXD3; cellular plasticity; phenotype switch
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Wessely, A.; Steeb, T.; Berking, C.; Heppt, M.V. How Neural Crest Transcription Factors Contribute to Melanoma Heterogeneity, Cellular Plasticity, and Treatment Resistance. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 5761. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22115761

AMA Style

Wessely A, Steeb T, Berking C, Heppt MV. How Neural Crest Transcription Factors Contribute to Melanoma Heterogeneity, Cellular Plasticity, and Treatment Resistance. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(11):5761. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22115761

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wessely, Anja, Theresa Steeb, Carola Berking, and Markus V. Heppt 2021. "How Neural Crest Transcription Factors Contribute to Melanoma Heterogeneity, Cellular Plasticity, and Treatment Resistance" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 11: 5761. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22115761

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop