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Article

Apex Resection in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a Model of Heart Regeneration: A Video-Assisted Guide

1
DCA-Lab, Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Odense University Hospital, J. B. Winsløwsvej 25, 1. Floor, 5000 Odense C, Denmark
2
DCA-Lab, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, J. B. Winsløwsvej 19, 5000 Odense C, Denmark
3
Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, DanStem (Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Stem Cell Biology), Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 København H, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Cheol-Hee Kim and Seong-kyu Choe
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 5865; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22115865
Received: 10 May 2021 / Revised: 25 May 2021 / Accepted: 25 May 2021 / Published: 30 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zebrafish: A Powerful Model for Genetics and Genomics)
Ischemic heart disease is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide. A major hindrance to resolving this challenge lies in the mammalian hearts inability to regenerate after injury. In contrast, zebrafish retain a regenerative capacity of the heart throughout their lifetimes. Apex resection (AR) is a popular zebrafish model for studying heart regeneration, and entails resecting 10–20% of the heart in the apex region, whereafter the regeneration process is monitored until the heart is fully regenerated within 60 days. Despite this popularity, video tutorials describing this technique in detail are lacking. In this paper we visualize and describe the entire AR procedure including anaesthesia, surgery, and recovery. In addition, we show that the concentration and duration of anaesthesia are important parameters to consider, to balance sufficient levels of sedation and minimizing mortality. Moreover, we provide examples of how zebrafish heart regeneration can be assessed both in 2D (immunohistochemistry of heart sections) and 3D (analyses of whole, tissue cleared hearts using multiphoton imaging). In summary, this paper aims to aid beginners in establishing and conducting the AR model in their laboratory, but also to spur further interest in improving the model and its evaluation. View Full-Text
Keywords: regeneration; heart; zebrafish; apex resection; surgical videos; anaesthesia regeneration; heart; zebrafish; apex resection; surgical videos; anaesthesia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ellman, D.G.; Slaiman, I.M.; Mathiesen, S.B.; Andersen, K.S.; Hofmeister, W.; Ober, E.A.; Andersen, D.C. Apex Resection in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a Model of Heart Regeneration: A Video-Assisted Guide. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 5865. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22115865

AMA Style

Ellman DG, Slaiman IM, Mathiesen SB, Andersen KS, Hofmeister W, Ober EA, Andersen DC. Apex Resection in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a Model of Heart Regeneration: A Video-Assisted Guide. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(11):5865. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22115865

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ellman, Ditte G., Ibrahim M. Slaiman, Sabrina B. Mathiesen, Kristian S. Andersen, Wolfgang Hofmeister, Elke A. Ober, and Ditte C. Andersen 2021. "Apex Resection in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a Model of Heart Regeneration: A Video-Assisted Guide" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 11: 5865. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22115865

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