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Article

Integrated Insight into the Molecular Mechanisms of Spontaneous Abortion during Early Pregnancy in Pigs

by 1,2,3,†, 1,2,3,†, 1,2,3, 1,2,3, 1,2,3, 1,2,3, 1,2,3, 1,2,3, 1,2,3,4, 1,2,3, 5,*, 1,2,3,* and 1,2,3,4,*
1
National Engineering Research Center for Breeding Swine Industry, College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
2
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
3
Lingnan Guangdong Laboratory of Modern Agriculture, Guangzhou 510642, China
4
State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresources, Guangzhou 510642, China
5
Institute of Animal Science, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou 510642, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Xupeng Zang and Ting Gu contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Dariusz Szukiewicz
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(12), 6644; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22126644
Received: 5 May 2021 / Revised: 14 June 2021 / Accepted: 15 June 2021 / Published: 21 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reproductive Immunology and Pregnancy 2.0)
Due to the high rate of spontaneous abortion (SAB) in porcine pregnancy, there is a major interest and concern on commercial pig farming worldwide. Whereas the perturbed immune response at the maternal–fetal interface is an important mechanism associated with the spontaneous embryo loss in the early stages of implantation in porcine, data on the specific regulatory mechanism of the SAB at the end stage of the implantation remains scant. Therefore, we used high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics tools to analyze the healthy and arresting endometrium on day 28 of pregnancy. We identified 639 differentially expressed lncRNAs (DELs) and 2357 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at the end stage of implantation, and qRT-PCR was used to verify the sequencing data. Gene set variation analysis (GSVA), gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), and immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated weaker immune response activities in the arresting endometrium compared to the healthy one. Using the lasso regression analysis, we screened the DELs and constructed an immunological competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network related to SAB, including 4 lncRNAs, 11 miRNAs, and 13 genes. In addition, Blast analysis showed the applicability of the constructed ceRNA network in different species, and subsequently determined HOXA-AS2 in pigs. Our study, for the first time, demonstrated that the SAB events at the end stages of implantation is associated with the regulation of immunobiological processes, and a specific molecular regulatory network was obtained. These novel findings may provide new insight into the possibility of increasing the litter size of sows, making pig breeding better and thus improving the efficiency of animal husbandry production. View Full-Text
Keywords: ceRNA; HOXA-AS2; immune response; pig; spontaneous abortion ceRNA; HOXA-AS2; immune response; pig; spontaneous abortion
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zang, X.; Gu, T.; Wang, W.; Zhou, C.; Ding, Y.; Gu, S.; Xu, Z.; Xie, Y.; Li, Z.; Cai, G.; Hu, B.; Hong, L.; Wu, Z. Integrated Insight into the Molecular Mechanisms of Spontaneous Abortion during Early Pregnancy in Pigs. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 6644. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22126644

AMA Style

Zang X, Gu T, Wang W, Zhou C, Ding Y, Gu S, Xu Z, Xie Y, Li Z, Cai G, Hu B, Hong L, Wu Z. Integrated Insight into the Molecular Mechanisms of Spontaneous Abortion during Early Pregnancy in Pigs. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(12):6644. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22126644

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zang, Xupeng, Ting Gu, Wenjing Wang, Chen Zhou, Yue Ding, Shengchen Gu, Zhiqian Xu, Yanshe Xie, Zicong Li, Gengyuan Cai, Bin Hu, Linjun Hong, and Zhenfang Wu. 2021. "Integrated Insight into the Molecular Mechanisms of Spontaneous Abortion during Early Pregnancy in Pigs" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 12: 6644. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22126644

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