Next Article in Journal
The LPA3 Receptor: Regulation and Activation of Signaling Pathways
Next Article in Special Issue
Selective Inhibition of Genomic and Non-Genomic Effects of Thyroid Hormone Regulates Muscle Cell Differentiation and Metabolic Behavior
Previous Article in Journal
Benefits in the Macrophage Response Due to Graphene Oxide Reduction by Thermal Treatment
Previous Article in Special Issue
Thermogenic Fat: Development, Physiological Function, and Therapeutic Potential
Review

Renin-Angiotensin System in Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis and Treatment of CVD

1
Institute for Atherosclerosis Research, Skolkovo Innovative Center, 121609 Moscow, Russia
2
Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology Campus, New Delhi 110067, India
3
Systems Genomics Laboratory, School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067, India
4
Federal Research and Clinical Center of Intensive Care Medicine and Rehabilitology, 14-3 Solyanka Street, 109240 Moscow, Russia
5
Laboratory of Angiopathology, Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, 125315 Moscow, Russia
6
Institute of Human Morphology, 3 Tsyurupa Street, 117418 Moscow, Russia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Manfredi Rizzo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(13), 6702; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22136702
Received: 27 May 2021 / Revised: 18 June 2021 / Accepted: 18 June 2021 / Published: 22 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Molecular Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Atherosclerosis has complex pathogenesis, which involves at least three serious aspects: inflammation, lipid metabolism alterations, and endothelial injury. There are no effective treatment options, as well as preventive measures for atherosclerosis. However, this disease has various severe complications, the most severe of which is cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is important to note, that CVD is among the leading causes of death worldwide. The renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) is an important part of inflammatory response regulation. This system contributes to the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the injured site and stimulates the production of various cytokines, such as IL-6, TNF-a, and COX-2. There is also an association between RAAS and oxidative stress, which is also an important player in atherogenesis. Angiotensin-II induces plaque formation at early stages, and this is one of the most crucial impacts on atherogenesis from the RAAS. Importantly, while stimulating the production of ROS, Angiotensin-II at the same time decreases the generation of NO. The endothelium is known as a major contributor to vascular function. Oxidative stress is the main trigger of endothelial dysfunction, and, once again, links RAAS to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. All these implications of RAAS in atherogenesis lead to an explicable conclusion that elements of RAAS can be promising targets for atherosclerosis treatment. In this review, we also summarize the data on treatment approaches involving cytokine targeting in CVD, which can contribute to a better understanding of atherogenesis and even its prevention. View Full-Text
Keywords: atherosclerosis; CVD; RAAS; renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system atherosclerosis; CVD; RAAS; renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Poznyak, A.V.; Bharadwaj, D.; Prasad, G.; Grechko, A.V.; Sazonova, M.A.; Orekhov, A.N. Renin-Angiotensin System in Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis and Treatment of CVD. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 6702. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22136702

AMA Style

Poznyak AV, Bharadwaj D, Prasad G, Grechko AV, Sazonova MA, Orekhov AN. Renin-Angiotensin System in Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis and Treatment of CVD. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(13):6702. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22136702

Chicago/Turabian Style

Poznyak, Anastasia V., Dwaipayan Bharadwaj, Gauri Prasad, Andrey V. Grechko, Margarita A. Sazonova, and Alexander N. Orekhov 2021. "Renin-Angiotensin System in Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis and Treatment of CVD" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 13: 6702. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22136702

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop