Next Article in Journal
Functional Analyses of Four CYP1A1 Missense Mutations Present in Patients with Atypical Femoral Fractures
Next Article in Special Issue
Passive Transfer of Blood Sera from ALS Patients with Identified Mutations Results in Elevated Motoneuronal Calcium Level and Loss of Motor Neurons in the Spinal Cord of Mice
Previous Article in Journal
Influence of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Genetic Variants on the Subjective Effects of Smoked Cannabis
Review

Calcium and Heart Failure: How Did We Get Here and Where Are We Going?

1
Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, Rutgers University-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
2
Cardiac Electrophysiology Research and Training Center, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
3
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
4
Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari 1471655836, Iran
5
School of International Education, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China
6
Weill Cornell Medicine Qatar, Doha P. O. Box 24144, Qatar
7
Process Dynamics Laboratories, Al Khor 679576, Qatar
8
Gwathmey Inc., Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
9
Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Demetrios A. Arvanitis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(14), 7392; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22147392
Received: 6 June 2021 / Revised: 23 June 2021 / Accepted: 30 June 2021 / Published: 9 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Handling)
The occurrence and prevalence of heart failure remain high in the United States as well as globally. One person dies every 30 s from heart disease. Recognizing the importance of heart failure, clinicians and scientists have sought better therapeutic strategies and even cures for end-stage heart failure. This exploration has resulted in many failed clinical trials testing novel classes of pharmaceutical drugs and even gene therapy. As a result, along the way, there have been paradigm shifts toward and away from differing therapeutic approaches. The continued prevalence of death from heart failure, however, clearly demonstrates that the heart is not simply a pump and instead forces us to consider the complexity of simplicity in the pathophysiology of heart failure and reinforces the need to discover new therapeutic approaches. View Full-Text
Keywords: heart failure; excitation–contraction coupling; myocardial contractility; myofilament; sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase; sarcoplasmic reticulum; inotrope; beta blocker; calcium transient; hypoxia heart failure; excitation–contraction coupling; myocardial contractility; myofilament; sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase; sarcoplasmic reticulum; inotrope; beta blocker; calcium transient; hypoxia
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Siri-Angkul, N.; Dadfar, B.; Jaleel, R.; Naushad, J.; Parambathazhath, J.; Doye, A.A.; Xie, L.-H.; Gwathmey, J.K. Calcium and Heart Failure: How Did We Get Here and Where Are We Going? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 7392. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22147392

AMA Style

Siri-Angkul N, Dadfar B, Jaleel R, Naushad J, Parambathazhath J, Doye AA, Xie L-H, Gwathmey JK. Calcium and Heart Failure: How Did We Get Here and Where Are We Going? International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(14):7392. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22147392

Chicago/Turabian Style

Siri-Angkul, Natthaphat, Behzad Dadfar, Riya Jaleel, Jazna Naushad, Jaseela Parambathazhath, Angelia A. Doye, Lai-Hua Xie, and Judith K. Gwathmey 2021. "Calcium and Heart Failure: How Did We Get Here and Where Are We Going?" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 14: 7392. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22147392

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop