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Article

Maintenance of Ligament Homeostasis of Spheroid-Colonized Embroidered and Functionalized Scaffolds after 3D Stretch

1
Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Paracelsus Medical University, Nuremberg and Salzburg, Prof. Ernst Nathan Str. 1, 90419 Nuremberg, Germany
2
Department of Biosciences, Paris Lodron University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstr. 34, 5020 Salzburg, Austria
3
Institute of Biological Information Processing: IBI-2, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany
4
Workgroup BioEngineering, Department Materials Engineering, Institute of Polymers Materials, Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V. (IPF), Dresden, Hohe Straße 6, 01069 Dresden, Germany
5
FILK Freiberg Institute GmbH, Meißner Ring 1-5, 09599 Freiberg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Shared senior authorship.
Academic Editor: Silvia Panseri
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(15), 8204; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22158204
Received: 18 June 2021 / Revised: 18 July 2021 / Accepted: 23 July 2021 / Published: 30 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healing of Ligaments and Tendons: Tissue Engineering and Models)
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures are usually treated with autograft implantation to prevent knee instability. Tissue engineered ACL reconstruction is becoming promising to circumvent autograft limitations. The aim was to evaluate the influence of cyclic stretch on lapine (L) ACL fibroblasts on embroidered scaffolds with respect to adhesion, DNA and sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) contents, gene expression of ligament-associated extracellular matrix genes, such as type I collagen, decorin, tenascin C, tenomodulin, gap junctional connexin 43 and the transcription factor Mohawk. Control scaffolds and those functionalized by gas phase fluorination and cross-linked collagen foam were either pre-cultured with a suspension or with spheroids of LACL cells before being subjected to cyclic stretch (4%, 0.11 Hz, 3 days). Stretch increased significantly the scaffold area colonized with cells but impaired sGAGs and decorin gene expression (functionalized scaffolds seeded with cell suspension). Stretching increased tenascin C, connexin 43 and Mohawk but decreased decorin gene expression (control scaffolds seeded with cell suspension). Pre-cultivation of functionalized scaffolds with spheroids might be the more suitable method for maintaining ligamentogenesis in 3D scaffolds compared to using a cell suspension due to a significantly higher sGAG content in response to stretching and type I collagen gene expression in functionalized scaffolds. View Full-Text
Keywords: ligament tissue engineering; spheroids; ACL; 3D stretch; embroidered functionalized scaffold; polylactic acid (PLA); fluorine; poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone (P(LA-CL)) ligament tissue engineering; spheroids; ACL; 3D stretch; embroidered functionalized scaffold; polylactic acid (PLA); fluorine; poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone (P(LA-CL))
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gögele, C.; Konrad, J.; Hahn, J.; Breier, A.; Schröpfer, M.; Meyer, M.; Merkel, R.; Hoffmann, B.; Schulze-Tanzil, G. Maintenance of Ligament Homeostasis of Spheroid-Colonized Embroidered and Functionalized Scaffolds after 3D Stretch. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 8204. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22158204

AMA Style

Gögele C, Konrad J, Hahn J, Breier A, Schröpfer M, Meyer M, Merkel R, Hoffmann B, Schulze-Tanzil G. Maintenance of Ligament Homeostasis of Spheroid-Colonized Embroidered and Functionalized Scaffolds after 3D Stretch. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(15):8204. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22158204

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gögele, Clemens, Jens Konrad, Judith Hahn, Annette Breier, Michaela Schröpfer, Michael Meyer, Rudolf Merkel, Bernd Hoffmann, and Gundula Schulze-Tanzil. 2021. "Maintenance of Ligament Homeostasis of Spheroid-Colonized Embroidered and Functionalized Scaffolds after 3D Stretch" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 15: 8204. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22158204

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