Next Article in Journal
Importance of Surface Topography in Both Biological Activity and Catalysis of Nanomaterials: Can Catalysis by Design Guide Safe by Design?
Next Article in Special Issue
Small Extracellular Vesicle Enrichment of a Retrotransposon-Derived Double-Stranded RNA: A Means to Avoid Autoinflammation?
Previous Article in Journal
Cardiolipin-Containing Lipid Membranes Attract the Bacterial Cell Division Protein DivIVA
Previous Article in Special Issue
Targeting Inflammation after Myocardial Infarction: A Therapeutic Opportunity for Extracellular Vesicles?
Article

Extracellular Vesicles as Biological Indicators and Potential Sources of Autologous Therapeutics in Osteoarthritis

1
Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC 27701, USA
2
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC 27701, USA
3
Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC 27701, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yousef Abu-Amer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(15), 8351; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22158351
Received: 21 June 2021 / Revised: 26 July 2021 / Accepted: 31 July 2021 / Published: 3 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles in Inflammation)
Along with cytokines, extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by immune cells in the joint contribute to osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis. By high-resolution flow cytometry, we characterized 18 surface markers and 4 proinflammatory cytokines carried by EVs of various sizes in plasma and synovial fluid (SF) from individuals with knee OA, with a primary focus on immune cells that play a major role in OA pathogenesis. By multiplex immunoassay, we also measured concentrations of cytokines within (endo) and outside (exo) EVs. EVs carrying HLA-DR, -DP and -DQ were the most enriched subpopulations in SF relative to plasma (25–50-fold higher depending on size), suggesting a major contribution to the SF EV pool from infiltrating immune cells in OA joints. In contrast, the CD34+ medium and small EVs, reflecting hematopoietic stem cells, progenitor cells, and endothelial cells, were the most significantly enriched subpopulations in plasma relative to SF (7.3- and 7.7-fold higher). Ratios of EVs derived from neutrophils and lymphocytes were highly correlated between SF and plasma, indicating that plasma EVs could reflect OA severity and serve as systemic biomarkers of OA joint pathogenesis. Select subsets of plasma EVs might also provide next generation autologous biological products for intra-articular therapy of OA joints. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular vesicles; knee osteoarthritis; immune cells; flow cytometry; plasma; synovial fluid extracellular vesicles; knee osteoarthritis; immune cells; flow cytometry; plasma; synovial fluid
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, X.; Huebner, J.L.; Kraus, V.B. Extracellular Vesicles as Biological Indicators and Potential Sources of Autologous Therapeutics in Osteoarthritis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 8351. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22158351

AMA Style

Zhang X, Huebner JL, Kraus VB. Extracellular Vesicles as Biological Indicators and Potential Sources of Autologous Therapeutics in Osteoarthritis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(15):8351. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22158351

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Xin, Janet L. Huebner, and Virginia B. Kraus 2021. "Extracellular Vesicles as Biological Indicators and Potential Sources of Autologous Therapeutics in Osteoarthritis" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 15: 8351. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22158351

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop