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Review

The Role of Mitochondrial Function in Peripheral Arterial Disease: Insights from Translational Studies

1
Department of Vascular Surgery, Medical University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria
2
Department of Vascular Surgery, Charité—University Hospital of Berlin, D-12203 Berlin, Germany
3
German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Aerospace Medicine, D-51147 Cologne, Germany
4
Center for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Preventive Medicine (CEDP), University Hospital Cologne, D-50931 Cologne, Germany
5
Cologne Excellence Cluster on Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-Associated Diseases (CECAD), D-50931 Cologne, Germany
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Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research at Heinrich-Heine University Düsseldorf, D-40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
7
German Center of Diabetes Research (DZD e.V.), D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ayotunde O. Dokun
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(16), 8478; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22168478
Received: 19 July 2021 / Revised: 3 August 2021 / Accepted: 3 August 2021 / Published: 6 August 2021
Recent evidence demonstrates an involvement of impaired mitochondrial function in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) development. Specific impairments have been assessed by different methodological in-vivo (near-infrared spectroscopy, 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy), as well as in-vitro approaches (Western blotting of mitochondrial proteins and enzymes, assays of mitochondrial function and content). While effects differ with regard to disease severity, chronic malperfusion impacts subcellular energy homeostasis, and repeating cycles of ischemia and reperfusion contribute to PAD disease progression by increasing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and impairing mitochondrial function. With the leading clinical symptom of decreased walking capacity due to intermittent claudication, PAD patients suffer from a subsequent reduction of quality of life. Different treatment modalities, such as physical activity and revascularization procedures, can aid mitochondrial recovery. While the relevance of these modalities for mitochondrial functional recovery is still a matter of debate, recent research indicates the importance of revascularization procedures, with increased physical activity levels being a subordinate contributor, at least during mild stages of PAD. With an additional focus on the role of revascularization procedures on mitochondria and the identification of suitable mitochondrial markers in PAD, this review aims to critically evaluate the relevance of mitochondrial function in PAD development and progression. View Full-Text
Keywords: mitochondrial function; peripheral arterial disease; physical activity; mitochondrial recovery; revascularization mitochondrial function; peripheral arterial disease; physical activity; mitochondrial recovery; revascularization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gratl, A.; Wipper, S.; Frese, J.P.; Raude, B.; Greiner, A.; Pesta, D. The Role of Mitochondrial Function in Peripheral Arterial Disease: Insights from Translational Studies. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 8478. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22168478

AMA Style

Gratl A, Wipper S, Frese JP, Raude B, Greiner A, Pesta D. The Role of Mitochondrial Function in Peripheral Arterial Disease: Insights from Translational Studies. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(16):8478. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22168478

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gratl, Alexandra, Sabine Wipper, Jan P. Frese, Ben Raude, Andreas Greiner, and Dominik Pesta. 2021. "The Role of Mitochondrial Function in Peripheral Arterial Disease: Insights from Translational Studies" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 16: 8478. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22168478

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