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Review

The Impact of Physical Exercise on the Circulating Levels of BDNF and NT 4/5: A Review

1
University of Coimbra, Faculty of Sport Sciences and Physical Education, Coimbra Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research, 3004-504 Coimbra, Portugal
2
University of Coimbra, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 3004-504 Coimbra, Portugal
3
University of Coimbra, Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research, 3004-504 Coimbra, Portugal
4
Sport and Exercise Sciences Research Unit, Department of Psychology, Educational Science and Human Movement, University of Palermo, 90144 Palermo, Italy
5
University of Coimbra, Center for Innovative Biomedicine and Biotechnology (CIBB), 3004-504 Coimbra, Portugal
6
Department of Biological and Environmental Science and Technologies (DiSTeBA), University of Salento, 73100 Lecce, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter Watt
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(16), 8814; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22168814
Received: 21 June 2021 / Revised: 26 July 2021 / Accepted: 6 August 2021 / Published: 16 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormone Signaling in Human Health and Diseases)
(1) Background: One mechanism through which physical activity (PA) provides benefits is by triggering activity at a molecular level, where neurotrophins (NTs) are known to play an important role. However, the expression of the circulating levels of neurotrophic factors, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4/5), in response to exercise, is not fully understood. Therefore, the aim was to provide an updated overview on the neurotrophin (NT) variation levels of BDNF and NT-4/5 as a consequence of a long-term aerobic exercise intervention, and to understand and describe whether the upregulation of circulating NT levels is a result of neurotrophic factors produced and released from the brain, and/or from neurotrophic secreting peripheral organs. (2) Methods: The articles were collected from PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, MEDLINE, and Embase. Data were analyzed through a narrative synthesis. (3) Results: 30 articles studied humans who performed training protocols that ranged from 4 to 48 weeks; 22 articles studied rodents with an intervention period that ranged from 4 to 64 weeks. (4) Conclusions: There is no unanimity between the upregulation of BDNF in humans; conversely, concerning both BDNF and NT-4/5 in animal models, the results are heterogeneous. Whilst BDNF upregulation appears to be in relative agreement, NT-4/5 seems to display contradictory and inconsistent conclusions. View Full-Text
Keywords: exercise; neurotrophins; brain-derived neurotrophic factor; neurotrophin-4; peripheral circulation exercise; neurotrophins; brain-derived neurotrophic factor; neurotrophin-4; peripheral circulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ribeiro, D.; Petrigna, L.; Pereira, F.C.; Muscella, A.; Bianco, A.; Tavares, P. The Impact of Physical Exercise on the Circulating Levels of BDNF and NT 4/5: A Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 8814. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22168814

AMA Style

Ribeiro D, Petrigna L, Pereira FC, Muscella A, Bianco A, Tavares P. The Impact of Physical Exercise on the Circulating Levels of BDNF and NT 4/5: A Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(16):8814. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22168814

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ribeiro, Daniel, Luca Petrigna, Frederico C. Pereira, Antonella Muscella, Antonino Bianco, and Paula Tavares. 2021. "The Impact of Physical Exercise on the Circulating Levels of BDNF and NT 4/5: A Review" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 16: 8814. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22168814

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