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Targeting Cytokines, Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns, and Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns in Sepsis via Blood Purification

1
Laboratory for Immune Response and Regulatory Medicine, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake 470-1192, Japan
2
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake 470-1192, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yuji Takeda
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(16), 8882; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22168882
Received: 29 July 2021 / Revised: 16 August 2021 / Accepted: 17 August 2021 / Published: 18 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Interleukin in Health and Diseases)
Sepsis is characterized by a dysregulated immune response to infections that causes life-threatening organ dysfunction and even death. When infections occur, bacterial cell wall components (endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide), known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns, bind to pattern recognition receptors, such as toll-like receptors, to initiate an inflammatory response for pathogen elimination. However, strong activation of the immune system leads to cellular dysfunction and ultimately organ failure. Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are released by injured host cells, are well-recognized triggers that result in the elevation of inflammatory cytokine levels. A cytokine storm is thus amplified and sustained in this vicious cycle. Interestingly, during sepsis, neutrophils transition from powerful antimicrobial protectors into dangerous mediators of tissue injury and organ dysfunction. Thus, the concept of blood purification has evolved to include inflammatory cells and mediators. In this review, we summarize recent advances in knowledge regarding the role of lipopolysaccharides, cytokines, DAMPs, and neutrophils in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Additionally, we discuss the potential of blood purification, especially the adsorption technology, for removing immune cells and molecular mediators, thereby serving as a therapeutic strategy against sepsis. Finally, we describe the concept of our immune-modulating blood purification system. View Full-Text
Keywords: adsorption; blood purification; cytokine; hemofiltration; lipopolysaccharide; DAMPs; sepsis adsorption; blood purification; cytokine; hemofiltration; lipopolysaccharide; DAMPs; sepsis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Moriyama, K.; Nishida, O. Targeting Cytokines, Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns, and Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns in Sepsis via Blood Purification. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 8882. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22168882

AMA Style

Moriyama K, Nishida O. Targeting Cytokines, Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns, and Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns in Sepsis via Blood Purification. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(16):8882. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22168882

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moriyama, Kazuhiro, and Osamu Nishida. 2021. "Targeting Cytokines, Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns, and Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns in Sepsis via Blood Purification" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 16: 8882. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22168882

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