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Role of Neuroinflammation and Blood-Brain Barrier Permutability on Migraine

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo 160-0023, Japan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonino Tuttolomondo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(16), 8929; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22168929
Received: 22 July 2021 / Revised: 14 August 2021 / Accepted: 16 August 2021 / Published: 19 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research of Migraine: From Pathogenesis to Treatment)
Currently, migraine is treated mainly by targeting calcitonin gene-related peptides, although the efficacy of this method is limited and new treatment strategies are desired. Neuroinflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of migraine. In patients with migraine, peripheral levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α, are known to be increased. Additionally, animal models of headache have demonstrated that immunological responses associated with cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of migraine. Furthermore, these inflammatory mediators might alter the function of tight junctions in brain vascular endothelial cells in animal models, but not in human patients. Based on clinical findings showing elevated IL-1β, and experimental findings involving IL-1β and both the peripheral trigeminal ganglion and central trigeminal vascular pathways, regulation of the Il-1β/IL-1 receptor type 1 axis might lead to new treatments for migraine. However, the integrity of the blood-brain barrier is not expected to be affected during attacks in patients with migraine. View Full-Text
Keywords: blood-brain barrier; migraine; neuroinflammation; IL-1β; chemokine; anakinra blood-brain barrier; migraine; neuroinflammation; IL-1β; chemokine; anakinra
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yamanaka, G.; Suzuki, S.; Morishita, N.; Takeshita, M.; Kanou, K.; Takamatsu, T.; Suzuki, S.; Morichi, S.; Watanabe, Y.; Ishida, Y.; Go, S.; Oana, S.; Kashiwagi, Y.; Kawashima, H. Role of Neuroinflammation and Blood-Brain Barrier Permutability on Migraine. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 8929. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22168929

AMA Style

Yamanaka G, Suzuki S, Morishita N, Takeshita M, Kanou K, Takamatsu T, Suzuki S, Morichi S, Watanabe Y, Ishida Y, Go S, Oana S, Kashiwagi Y, Kawashima H. Role of Neuroinflammation and Blood-Brain Barrier Permutability on Migraine. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(16):8929. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22168929

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yamanaka, Gaku, Shinji Suzuki, Natsumi Morishita, Mika Takeshita, Kanako Kanou, Tomoko Takamatsu, Shunsuke Suzuki, Shinichiro Morichi, Yusuke Watanabe, Yu Ishida, Soken Go, Shingo Oana, Yasuyo Kashiwagi, and Hisashi Kawashima. 2021. "Role of Neuroinflammation and Blood-Brain Barrier Permutability on Migraine" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 16: 8929. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22168929

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