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Review

Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Vascular Wall Cells and Its Role in Atherosclerosis

1
Faculty of Medicine, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119192 Moscow, Russia
2
Laboratory of Oncoproteomics, Institute of Carconigenesis, N. N. Blokhin Cancer Research Centre, 115478 Moscow, Russia
3
Laboratory of Angiopathology, Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, 125315 Moscow, Russia
4
Federal Scientific Clinical Center for Resuscitation and Rehabilitation, 109240 Moscow, Russia
5
Federal Research Centre for Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety, 109240 Moscow, Russia
6
Therapy Faculty, Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, 117997 Moscow, Russia
7
Institute of Human Morphology, 117418 Moscow, Russia
8
V. A. Nasonova Institute of Rheumatology, 115522 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yong Chul Lee
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(16), 8990; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22168990
Received: 5 June 2021 / Revised: 13 August 2021 / Accepted: 17 August 2021 / Published: 20 August 2021
Altered mitochondrial function is currently recognized as an important factor in atherosclerosis initiation and progression. Mitochondrial dysfunction can be caused by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations, which can be inherited or spontaneously acquired in various organs and tissues, having more or less profound effects depending on the tissue energy status. Arterial wall cells are among the most vulnerable to mitochondrial dysfunction due to their barrier and metabolic functions. In atherosclerosis, mitochondria cause alteration of cellular metabolism and respiration and are known to produce excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in oxidative stress. These processes are involved in vascular disease and chronic inflammation associated with atherosclerosis. Currently, the list of known mtDNA mutations associated with human pathologies is growing, and many of the identified mtDNA variants are being tested as disease markers. Alleviation of oxidative stress and inflammation appears to be promising for atherosclerosis treatment. In this review, we discuss the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in atherosclerosis development, focusing on the key cell types of the arterial wall involved in the pathological processes. Accumulation of mtDNA mutations in isolated arterial wall cells, such as endothelial cells, may contribute to the development of local inflammatory process that helps explaining the focal distribution of atherosclerotic plaques on the arterial wall surface. We also discuss antioxidant and anti-inflammatory approaches that can potentially reduce the impact of mitochondrial dysfunction. View Full-Text
Keywords: mitochondrion; mitochondrial DNA; oxidative stress; inflammation; atherosclerosis mitochondrion; mitochondrial DNA; oxidative stress; inflammation; atherosclerosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Salnikova, D.; Orekhova, V.; Grechko, A.; Starodubova, A.; Bezsonov, E.; Popkova, T.; Orekhov, A. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Vascular Wall Cells and Its Role in Atherosclerosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 8990. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22168990

AMA Style

Salnikova D, Orekhova V, Grechko A, Starodubova A, Bezsonov E, Popkova T, Orekhov A. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Vascular Wall Cells and Its Role in Atherosclerosis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(16):8990. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22168990

Chicago/Turabian Style

Salnikova, Diana, Varvara Orekhova, Andrey Grechko, Antonina Starodubova, Evgeny Bezsonov, Tatyana Popkova, and Alexander Orekhov. 2021. "Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Vascular Wall Cells and Its Role in Atherosclerosis" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 16: 8990. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22168990

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