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Article

Prostaglandin E2 Receptor 4 (EP4) Affects Trophoblast Functions via Activating the cAMP-PKA-pCREB Signaling Pathway at the Maternal-Fetal Interface in Unexplained Recurrent Miscarriage

1
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich, Germany
2
Chongqing Key Laboratory of Human Embryo Engineering, Chongqing Reproductive and Genetics Institute, Chongqing Health Center for Women and Children, No. 64 Jin Tang Street, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing 400013, China
3
Department of Reproductive Medicine Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Kongjiang Rd. 1665, Shanghai 200092, China
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Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik I, Klinikum der Universität München, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, 81377 Munich, Germany
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Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Augsburg, Stenglinstr. 2, 86156 Augsburg, Germany
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Center of Gynecological Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Robert Garfield
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(17), 9134; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22179134
Received: 6 July 2021 / Revised: 13 August 2021 / Accepted: 14 August 2021 / Published: 24 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reproductive Immunology: Cellular and Molecular Biology 2.0)
Implantation consists of a complex process based on coordinated crosstalk between the endometrium and trophoblast. Furthermore, it is known that the microenvironment of this fetal–maternal interface plays an important role in the development of extravillous trophoblast cells. This is mainly due to the fact that tissues mediate embryonic signaling biologicals, among other molecules, prostaglandins. Prostaglandins influence tissue through several cell processes including differentiation, proliferation, and promotion of maternal immune tolerance. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential pathological mechanism of the prostaglandin E2 receptor 4 (EP4) in modulating extravillous trophoblast cells (EVTs) in unexplained recurrent marriage (uRM). Our results indicated that the expression of EP4 in EVTs was decreased in women experiencing uRM. Furthermore, silencing of EP4 showed an inhibition of the proliferation and induced apoptosis in vitro. In addition, our results demonstrated reductions in β- human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), progesterone, and interleukin (IL)-6, which is likely a result from the activation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)- cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA)-phosphorylating CREB (pCREB) pathway. Our data might provide insight into the mechanisms of EP4 linked to trophoblast function. These findings help build a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of EP4 on the trophoblast at the fetal–maternal interface in the first trimester of pregnancy. View Full-Text
Keywords: unexplained recurrent miscarriage (uRM); prostaglandin E2 receptor 4 (EP4); extravillous trophoblast cells (EVTs); phosphorylating CREB (pCREB) unexplained recurrent miscarriage (uRM); prostaglandin E2 receptor 4 (EP4); extravillous trophoblast cells (EVTs); phosphorylating CREB (pCREB)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Peng, L.; Chelariu-Raicu, A.; Ye, Y.; Ma, Z.; Yang, H.; Ishikawa-Ankerhold, H.; Rahmeh, M.; Mahner, S.; Jeschke, U.; von Schönfeldt, V. Prostaglandin E2 Receptor 4 (EP4) Affects Trophoblast Functions via Activating the cAMP-PKA-pCREB Signaling Pathway at the Maternal-Fetal Interface in Unexplained Recurrent Miscarriage. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 9134. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22179134

AMA Style

Peng L, Chelariu-Raicu A, Ye Y, Ma Z, Yang H, Ishikawa-Ankerhold H, Rahmeh M, Mahner S, Jeschke U, von Schönfeldt V. Prostaglandin E2 Receptor 4 (EP4) Affects Trophoblast Functions via Activating the cAMP-PKA-pCREB Signaling Pathway at the Maternal-Fetal Interface in Unexplained Recurrent Miscarriage. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(17):9134. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22179134

Chicago/Turabian Style

Peng, Lin, Anca Chelariu-Raicu, Yao Ye, Zhi Ma, Huixia Yang, Hellen Ishikawa-Ankerhold, Martina Rahmeh, Sven Mahner, Udo Jeschke, and Viktoria von Schönfeldt. 2021. "Prostaglandin E2 Receptor 4 (EP4) Affects Trophoblast Functions via Activating the cAMP-PKA-pCREB Signaling Pathway at the Maternal-Fetal Interface in Unexplained Recurrent Miscarriage" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 17: 9134. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22179134

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