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Functional Analyses of Four CYP1A1 Missense Mutations Present in Patients with Atypical Femoral Fractures
Review

Site-Specific Fracture Healing: Comparison between Diaphysis and Metaphysis in the Mouse Long Bone

Department of Oral Anatomy and Developmental Biology, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan
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Academic Editor: José Manuel López
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(17), 9299; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22179299
Received: 5 August 2021 / Revised: 24 August 2021 / Accepted: 25 August 2021 / Published: 27 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone Development and Growth)
The process of fracture healing varies depending upon internal and external factors, such as the fracture site, mode of injury, and mechanical environment. This review focuses on site-specific fracture healing, particularly diaphyseal and metaphyseal healing in mouse long bones. Diaphyseal fractures heal by forming the periosteal and medullary callus, whereas metaphyseal fractures heal by forming the medullary callus. Bone healing in ovariectomized mice is accompanied by a decrease in the medullary callus formation both in the diaphysis and metaphysis. Administration of estrogen after fracture significantly recovers the decrease in diaphyseal healing but fails to recover the metaphyseal healing. Thus, the two bones show different osteogenic potentials after fracture in ovariectomized mice. This difference may be attributed to the heterogeneity of the skeletal stem cells (SSCs)/osteoblast progenitors of the two bones. The Hox genes that specify the patterning of the mammalian skeleton during embryogenesis are upregulated during the diaphyseal healing. Hox genes positively regulate the differentiation of osteoblasts from SSCs in vitro. During bone grafting, the SSCs in the donor’s bone express Hox with adaptability in the heterologous bone. These novel functions of the Hox genes are discussed herein with reference to the site-specificity of fracture healing. View Full-Text
Keywords: fracture healing; diaphysis; metaphysis; medullary callus; bone remodeling; estrogen; ovariectomy; Hox genes; skeletal stem cells fracture healing; diaphysis; metaphysis; medullary callus; bone remodeling; estrogen; ovariectomy; Hox genes; skeletal stem cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Inoue, S.; Takito, J.; Nakamura, M. Site-Specific Fracture Healing: Comparison between Diaphysis and Metaphysis in the Mouse Long Bone. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 9299. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22179299

AMA Style

Inoue S, Takito J, Nakamura M. Site-Specific Fracture Healing: Comparison between Diaphysis and Metaphysis in the Mouse Long Bone. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(17):9299. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22179299

Chicago/Turabian Style

Inoue, Satoshi, Jiro Takito, and Masanori Nakamura. 2021. "Site-Specific Fracture Healing: Comparison between Diaphysis and Metaphysis in the Mouse Long Bone" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 17: 9299. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22179299

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