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Interactions between the Gut Microbiome, Lung Conditions, and Coronary Heart Disease and How Probiotics Affect These

1
Molecular Microbiology and Genomics Consultants, Tannenstrasse 7, 55576 Zotzenheim, Germany
2
Department of Biomedical Informatics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72209, USA
3
Symbiopharm GmbH, 35745 Herborn, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andreas Schwiertz
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(18), 9700; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22189700
Received: 12 August 2021 / Revised: 2 September 2021 / Accepted: 3 September 2021 / Published: 8 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Future Perspective in Microbiota and Probiotics)
The importance of a healthy microbiome cannot be overemphasized. Disturbances in its composition can lead to a variety of symptoms that can extend to other organs. Likewise, acute or chronic conditions in other organs can affect the composition and physiology of the gut microbiome. Here, we discuss interorgan communication along the gut–lung axis, as well as interactions between lung and coronary heart diseases and between cardiovascular disease and the gut microbiome. This triangle of organs, which also affects the clinical outcome of COVID-19 infections, is connected by means of numerous receptors and effectors, including immune cells and immune-modulating factors such as short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and trimethlamine–N–oxide (TMAO). The gut microbiome plays an important role in each of these, thus affecting the health of the lungs and the heart, and this interplay occurs in both directions. The gut microbiome can be influenced by the oral uptake of probiotics. With an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for interorgan communication, we can start to define what requirements an ‘ideal’ probiotic should have and its role in this triangle. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut–lung axis; gut microbiome; coronary heart disease; COVID-19; probiotics; short-chain fatty acids gut–lung axis; gut microbiome; coronary heart disease; COVID-19; probiotics; short-chain fatty acids
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wassenaar, T.M.; Juncos, V.A.; Zimmermann, K. Interactions between the Gut Microbiome, Lung Conditions, and Coronary Heart Disease and How Probiotics Affect These. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 9700. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22189700

AMA Style

Wassenaar TM, Juncos VA, Zimmermann K. Interactions between the Gut Microbiome, Lung Conditions, and Coronary Heart Disease and How Probiotics Affect These. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(18):9700. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22189700

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wassenaar, Trudy M., Valentina A. Juncos, and Kurt Zimmermann. 2021. "Interactions between the Gut Microbiome, Lung Conditions, and Coronary Heart Disease and How Probiotics Affect These" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 18: 9700. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22189700

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