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Review

Open MHC Class I Conformers: A Look through the Looking Glass

1
Health Sciences Research Center (CICS-UBI), University of Beira Interior, 6200-506 Covilhã, Portugal
2
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Beira Interior, 6200-506 Covilhã, Portugal
3
Health School, Guarda Polytechnic Institute, 6300-749 Guarda, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francesca Fallarino
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(18), 9738; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22189738
Received: 17 June 2021 / Revised: 4 September 2021 / Accepted: 8 September 2021 / Published: 8 September 2021
Studies carried out during the last few decades have consistently shown that cell surface MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules are endowed with functions unrelated with antigen presentation. These include cis–trans-interactions with inhibitory and activating KIR and LILR, and cis-interactions with receptors for hormones, growth factors, cytokines, and neurotransmitters. The mounting body of evidence indicates that these non-immunological MHC-I functions impact clinical and biomedical settings, including autoimmune responses, tumor escape, transplantation, and neuronal development. Notably, most of these functions appear to rely on the presence in hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells of heavy chains not associated with β2m and the peptide at the plasma membrane; these are known as open MHC-I conformers. Nowadays, open conformers are viewed as functional cis-trans structures capable of establishing physical associations with themselves, with other surface receptors, and being shed into the extracellular milieu. We review past and recent developments, strengthening the view that open conformers are multifunctional structures capable of fine-tuning cell signaling, growth, differentiation, and cell communication. View Full-Text
Keywords: HLA-ABC; open conformers; soluble HLA-I; cis-trans; associations; signaling; autoimmunity; cancer; transplantation; neuroimmunology HLA-ABC; open conformers; soluble HLA-I; cis-trans; associations; signaling; autoimmunity; cancer; transplantation; neuroimmunology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Arosa, F.A.; Esgalhado, A.J.; Reste-Ferreira, D.; Cardoso, E.M. Open MHC Class I Conformers: A Look through the Looking Glass. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 9738. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22189738

AMA Style

Arosa FA, Esgalhado AJ, Reste-Ferreira D, Cardoso EM. Open MHC Class I Conformers: A Look through the Looking Glass. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(18):9738. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22189738

Chicago/Turabian Style

Arosa, Fernando A., André J. Esgalhado, Débora Reste-Ferreira, and Elsa M. Cardoso. 2021. "Open MHC Class I Conformers: A Look through the Looking Glass" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 18: 9738. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22189738

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