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Article

Cheonggukjang-Specific Component 1,3-Diphenyl-2-Propanone as a Novel PPARα/γ Dual Agonist: An In Vitro and In Silico Study

1
Interdisciplinary Research Program of Bioinformatics and Longevity Science, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea
2
Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea
3
Department of Predictive Toxicology, Korea Institute of Toxicology, Daejeon 34114, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Yoshikazu Higami, Masaki Kobayashi and Akira Sato
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(19), 10884; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms221910884
Received: 8 September 2021 / Revised: 28 September 2021 / Accepted: 5 October 2021 / Published: 8 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Medicines, Functional Foods and Nutrients for Healthcare)
Background: Cheonggukjang is a traditional fermented soybean paste that is mostly consumed in Korea. However, the biological activities of Cheonggukjang specific compounds have not been studied. Thus, we aimed to discover a novel dual agonist for PPARα/γ from dietary sources such as Cheonggukjang specific volatile compounds and explore the potential role of PPARα/γ dual agonists using in vitro and in silico tools. Methods: A total of 35 compounds were selected from non-fermented and fermented soybean products cultured with Bacillus subtilis, namely Cheonggukjang, for analysis by in vitro and in silico studies. Results: Molecular docking results showed that 1,3-diphenyl-2-propanone (DPP) had the lowest docking score for activating PPARα (1K7L) and PPARγ (3DZY) with non-toxic effects. Moreover, DPP significantly increased the transcriptional activities of both PPARα and PPARγ and highly activated its expression in Ac2F liver cells, in vitro. Here, we demonstrated for the first time that DPP can act as a dual agonist of PPARα/γ using in vitro and in silico tools. Conclusions: The Cheonggukjang-specific compound DPP could be a novel PPARα/γ dual agonist and it is warranted to determine the therapeutic potential of PPARα/γ activation by dietary intervention and/or supplementation in the treatment of metabolic disorders without causing any adverse effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cheonggukjang volatile compounds; fermented soybean; molecular docking; PPARα/γ dual agonist; 1,3-diphenyl-2-propanone Cheonggukjang volatile compounds; fermented soybean; molecular docking; PPARα/γ dual agonist; 1,3-diphenyl-2-propanone
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MDPI and ACS Style

Arulkumar, R.; Jung, H.-J.; Noh, S.-G.; Park, D.; Chung, H.-Y. Cheonggukjang-Specific Component 1,3-Diphenyl-2-Propanone as a Novel PPARα/γ Dual Agonist: An In Vitro and In Silico Study. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 10884. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms221910884

AMA Style

Arulkumar R, Jung H-J, Noh S-G, Park D, Chung H-Y. Cheonggukjang-Specific Component 1,3-Diphenyl-2-Propanone as a Novel PPARα/γ Dual Agonist: An In Vitro and In Silico Study. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(19):10884. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms221910884

Chicago/Turabian Style

Arulkumar, Radha, Hee-Jin Jung, Sang-Gyun Noh, Daeui Park, and Hae-Young Chung. 2021. "Cheonggukjang-Specific Component 1,3-Diphenyl-2-Propanone as a Novel PPARα/γ Dual Agonist: An In Vitro and In Silico Study" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 19: 10884. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms221910884

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