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Article

Reduced Graphene Oxides Modulate the Expression of Cell Receptors and Voltage-Dependent Ion Channel Genes of Glioblastoma Multiforme

1
Department of Nanobiotechnology, Institute of Biology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
2
Department of Chemical Synthesis and Flake Graphene, Łukasiewicz Research Network–Institute of Microelectronics and Photonics, 01-919 Warsaw, Poland
3
Tricomed SA, 5/9 Swientojanska St., 93-493 Lodz, Poland
4
Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Lodz University of Technology, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
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Department of Morphologic Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
6
Department of Pathology and Veterinary Diagnostics, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 515; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22020515
Received: 8 December 2020 / Revised: 29 December 2020 / Accepted: 4 January 2021 / Published: 6 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Nanomaterials 2.0)
The development of nanotechnology based on graphene and its derivatives has aroused great scientific interest because of their unusual properties. Graphene (GN) and its derivatives, such as reduced graphene oxide (rGO), exhibit antitumor effects on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells in vitro. The antitumor activity of rGO with different contents of oxygen-containing functional groups and GN was compared. Using FTIR (fourier transform infrared) analysis, the content of individual functional groups (GN/exfoliation (ExF), rGO/thermal (Term), rGO/ammonium thiosulphate (ATS), and rGO/ thiourea dioxide (TUD)) was determined. Cell membrane damage, as well as changes in the cell membrane potential, was analyzed. Additionally, the gene expression of voltage-dependent ion channels (clcn3, clcn6, cacna1b, cacna1d, nalcn, kcne4, kcnj10, and kcnb1) and extracellular receptors was determined. A reduction in the potential of the U87 glioma cell membrane was observed after treatment with rGO/ATS and rGO/TUD flakes. Moreover, it was also demonstrated that major changes in the expression of voltage-dependent ion channel genes were observed in clcn3, nalcn, and kcne4 after treatment with rGO/ATS and rGO/TUD flakes. Furthermore, the GN/ExF, rGO/ATS, and rGO/TUD flakes significantly reduced the expression of extracellular receptors (uPar, CD105) in U87 glioblastoma cells. In conclusion, the cytotoxic mechanism of rGO flakes may depend on the presence and types of oxygen-containing functional groups, which are more abundant in rGO compared to GN. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene; reduced graphene oxide; glioblastoma multiforme; voltage-gated ion channel; cell membrane receptor; membrane potential graphene; reduced graphene oxide; glioblastoma multiforme; voltage-gated ion channel; cell membrane receptor; membrane potential
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MDPI and ACS Style

Szczepaniak, J.; Jagiello, J.; Wierzbicki, M.; Nowak, D.; Sobczyk-Guzenda, A.; Sosnowska, M.; Jaworski, S.; Daniluk, K.; Szmidt, M.; Witkowska-Pilaszewicz, O.; Strojny-Cieslak, B.; Grodzik, M. Reduced Graphene Oxides Modulate the Expression of Cell Receptors and Voltage-Dependent Ion Channel Genes of Glioblastoma Multiforme. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 515. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22020515

AMA Style

Szczepaniak J, Jagiello J, Wierzbicki M, Nowak D, Sobczyk-Guzenda A, Sosnowska M, Jaworski S, Daniluk K, Szmidt M, Witkowska-Pilaszewicz O, Strojny-Cieslak B, Grodzik M. Reduced Graphene Oxides Modulate the Expression of Cell Receptors and Voltage-Dependent Ion Channel Genes of Glioblastoma Multiforme. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(2):515. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22020515

Chicago/Turabian Style

Szczepaniak, Jaroslaw, Joanna Jagiello, Mateusz Wierzbicki, Dorota Nowak, Anna Sobczyk-Guzenda, Malwina Sosnowska, Slawomir Jaworski, Karolina Daniluk, Maciej Szmidt, Olga Witkowska-Pilaszewicz, Barbara Strojny-Cieslak, and Marta Grodzik. 2021. "Reduced Graphene Oxides Modulate the Expression of Cell Receptors and Voltage-Dependent Ion Channel Genes of Glioblastoma Multiforme" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 2: 515. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22020515

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