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Rethinking the Citric Acid Cycle: Connecting Pyruvate Carboxylase and Citrate Synthase to the Flow of Energy and Material

1
Independent Scholar, 48291 Telgte, Germany
2
School of Pharmacy, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AP, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020604
Received: 16 December 2020 / Revised: 6 January 2021 / Accepted: 7 January 2021 / Published: 9 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Glucose Metabolism)
In 1937, Sir H. A Krebs first published the Citric Acid Cycle, a unidirectional cycle with carboxylic acids. The original concept of the Citric Acid Cycle from Krebs’ 1953 Nobel Prize lecture illustrates the unidirectional degradation of lactic acid to water, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Here, we add the heart lactate dehydrogenase•proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter 1 complex, connecting the original Citric Acid Cycle to the flow of energy and material. The heart lactate dehydrogenase•proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter 1 complex catalyses the first reaction of the Citric Acid Cycle, the oxidation of lactate to pyruvate, and thus secures the provision of pyruvic acid. In addition, we modify Krebs’ original concept by feeding the cycle with oxaloacetic acid. Our concept enables the integration of anabolic processes and allows adaption of the organism to recover ATP faster. View Full-Text
Keywords: Citric Acid Cycle; malic acid; succinic acid; oxidative phosphorylation; exercise; memory formation Citric Acid Cycle; malic acid; succinic acid; oxidative phosphorylation; exercise; memory formation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Roosterman, D.; Cottrell, G.S. Rethinking the Citric Acid Cycle: Connecting Pyruvate Carboxylase and Citrate Synthase to the Flow of Energy and Material. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 604. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22020604

AMA Style

Roosterman D, Cottrell GS. Rethinking the Citric Acid Cycle: Connecting Pyruvate Carboxylase and Citrate Synthase to the Flow of Energy and Material. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(2):604. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22020604

Chicago/Turabian Style

Roosterman, Dirk; Cottrell, Graeme S. 2021. "Rethinking the Citric Acid Cycle: Connecting Pyruvate Carboxylase and Citrate Synthase to the Flow of Energy and Material" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22, no. 2: 604. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22020604

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