Klotho was initially introduced as an antiaging molecule. Klotho deficiency significantly reduces lifespan, and its overexpression extends it and protects against various pathological phenotypes, especially renal disease. It was shown to regulate phosphate and calcium metabolism, protect against oxidative stress, downregulate apoptosis, and have antiinflammatory and antifibrotic properties. The course of diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy resembles premature cellular senescence and causes the activation of various proinflammatory and profibrotic processes. Klotho was shown to exert many beneficial effects in these disorders. The expression of Klotho protein is downregulated in early stages of inflammation and diabetic nephropathy by proinflammatory factors. Therefore, its therapeutic effects are diminished in this disorder. Significantly lower urine levels of Klotho may serve as an early biomarker of renal involvement in diabetes mellitus. Recombinant Klotho administration and Klotho overexpression may have immunotherapeutic potential for the treatment of both diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, the current manuscript aims to characterize immunopathologies occurring in diabetes and diabetic nephropathy, and tries to match them with antiinflammatory actions of Klotho. It also gives reasons for Klotho to be used in diagnostics and immunotherapy of these disorders.
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