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Review

Stem Cells and Their Derivatives—Implications for Alveolar Bone Regeneration: A Comprehensive Review

1
Department of Stomatology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Heydukova 10, 812 50 Bratislava, Slovakia
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Institute of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Sasinkova 4, 811 08 Bratislava, Slovakia
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National Institute of Rheumatic Diseases, Nábrežie I. Krasku 4, 921 12 Piešťany, Slovakia
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Department of Orthopedics, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University and National Institute of Children’s Diseases, Limbová 1, 833 40 Bratislava, Slovakia
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Institute of Medical Biology, Genetics and Clinical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Sasinkova 4, 811 08 Bratislava, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marco Tatullo, Adriano Piattelli and Barbara Zavan
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(21), 11746; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms222111746
Received: 12 October 2021 / Revised: 25 October 2021 / Accepted: 27 October 2021 / Published: 29 October 2021
Oral and craniofacial bone defects caused by congenital disease or trauma are widespread. In the case of severe alveolar bone defect, autologous bone grafting has been considered a “gold standard”; however, the procedure has several disadvantages, including limited supply, resorption, donor site morbidity, deformity, infection, and bone graft rejection. In the last few decades, bone tissue engineering combined with stem cell-based therapy may represent a possible alternative to current bone augmentation techniques. The number of studies investigating different cell-based bone tissue engineering methods to reconstruct alveolar bone damage is rapidly rising. As an interdisciplinary field, bone tissue engineering combines the use of osteogenic cells (stem cells/progenitor cells), bioactive molecules, and biocompatible scaffolds, whereas stem cells play a pivotal role. Therefore, our work highlights the osteogenic potential of various dental tissue-derived stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), the progress in differentiation techniques of iPSCs into osteoprogenitor cells, and the efforts that have been made to fabricate the most suitable and biocompatible scaffold material with osteoinductive properties for successful bone graft generation. Moreover, we discuss the application of stem cell-derived exosomes as a compelling new form of “stem-cell free” therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: alveolar bone regeneration; stem cell-based therapy; tissue engineering; exosomes alveolar bone regeneration; stem cell-based therapy; tissue engineering; exosomes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hollý, D.; Klein, M.; Mazreku, M.; Zamborský, R.; Polák, Š.; Danišovič, Ľ.; Csöbönyeiová, M. Stem Cells and Their Derivatives—Implications for Alveolar Bone Regeneration: A Comprehensive Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 11746. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms222111746

AMA Style

Hollý D, Klein M, Mazreku M, Zamborský R, Polák Š, Danišovič Ľ, Csöbönyeiová M. Stem Cells and Their Derivatives—Implications for Alveolar Bone Regeneration: A Comprehensive Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(21):11746. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms222111746

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hollý, Dušan, Martin Klein, Merita Mazreku, Radoslav Zamborský, Štefan Polák, Ľuboš Danišovič, and Mária Csöbönyeiová. 2021. "Stem Cells and Their Derivatives—Implications for Alveolar Bone Regeneration: A Comprehensive Review" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 21: 11746. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms222111746

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