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Open AccessReview

Membrane Microvesicles as Potential Vaccine Candidates

Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan, Russia
M.M. Shemyakin-Yu.A. Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 117997 Moscow, Russia
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, Sutton Bonington Campus, University of Nottingham, Loughborough LE12 5RD, UK
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Krzysztof Bryniarski
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1142;
Received: 24 December 2020 / Revised: 21 January 2021 / Accepted: 21 January 2021 / Published: 24 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles in Allergy, Autoimmunity and Immune Regulation)
The prevention and control of infectious diseases is crucial to the maintenance and protection of social and public healthcare. The global impact of SARS-CoV-2 has demonstrated how outbreaks of emerging and re-emerging infections can lead to pandemics of significant public health and socio-economic burden. Vaccination is one of the most effective approaches to protect against infectious diseases, and to date, multiple vaccines have been successfully used to protect against and eradicate both viral and bacterial pathogens. The main criterion of vaccine efficacy is the induction of specific humoral and cellular immune responses, and it is well established that immunogenicity depends on the type of vaccine as well as the route of delivery. In addition, antigen delivery to immune organs and the site of injection can potentiate efficacy of the vaccine. In light of this, microvesicles have been suggested as potential vehicles for antigen delivery as they can carry various immunogenic molecules including proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides directly to target cells. In this review, we focus on the mechanisms of microvesicle biogenesis and the role of microvesicles in infectious diseases. Further, we discuss the application of microvesicles as a novel and effective vaccine delivery system. View Full-Text
Keywords: vaccine; microvesicles; delivery system; infectious diseases; immunity vaccine; microvesicles; delivery system; infectious diseases; immunity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shkair, L.; Garanina, E.E.; Stott, R.J.; Foster, T.L.; Rizvanov, A.A.; Khaiboullina, S.F. Membrane Microvesicles as Potential Vaccine Candidates. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 1142.

AMA Style

Shkair L, Garanina EE, Stott RJ, Foster TL, Rizvanov AA, Khaiboullina SF. Membrane Microvesicles as Potential Vaccine Candidates. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(3):1142.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shkair, Layaly; Garanina, Ekaterina E.; Stott, Robert J.; Foster, Toshana L.; Rizvanov, Albert A.; Khaiboullina, Svetlana F. 2021. "Membrane Microvesicles as Potential Vaccine Candidates" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22, no. 3: 1142.

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