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Review

Neovascular Macular Degeneration: A Review of Etiology, Risk Factors, and Recent Advances in Research and Therapy

1
Knights Campus for Accelerating Scientific Impact, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA
2
Vagelos College of Physicians & Surgeons, Columbia Irving Medical Center, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1170; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22031170
Received: 7 December 2020 / Revised: 11 January 2021 / Accepted: 19 January 2021 / Published: 25 January 2021
Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (exudative or wet AMD) is a prevalent, progressive retinal degenerative macular disease that is characterized by neovascularization of the choroid, mainly affecting the elderly population causing gradual vision impairment. Risk factors such as age, race, genetics, iris color, smoking, drinking, BMI, and diet all play a part in nvAMD’s progression, with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy being the mainstay of treatment. Current therapeutic advancements slow the progression of the disease but do not cure or reverse its course. Newer therapies such as gene therapies, Rho-kinase inhibitors, and levodopa offer potential new targets for treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: age-related macular degeneration; neovascular age-related macular degeneration; etiopathogenesis; risk factors; gene-therapy; anti-VEGF; future advancements age-related macular degeneration; neovascular age-related macular degeneration; etiopathogenesis; risk factors; gene-therapy; anti-VEGF; future advancements
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pugazhendhi, A.; Hubbell, M.; Jairam, P.; Ambati, B. Neovascular Macular Degeneration: A Review of Etiology, Risk Factors, and Recent Advances in Research and Therapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 1170. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22031170

AMA Style

Pugazhendhi A, Hubbell M, Jairam P, Ambati B. Neovascular Macular Degeneration: A Review of Etiology, Risk Factors, and Recent Advances in Research and Therapy. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(3):1170. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22031170

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pugazhendhi, Arunbalaji, Margaret Hubbell, Pooja Jairam, and Balamurali Ambati. 2021. "Neovascular Macular Degeneration: A Review of Etiology, Risk Factors, and Recent Advances in Research and Therapy" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 3: 1170. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22031170

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