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Article

Effect of O-Antigen Chain Length Regulation on the Immunogenicity of Shigella and Salmonella Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA)

1
GSK Vaccines Institute for Global Health (GVGH) s.r.l, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
2
Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 1, Bdg C11, 34127 Trieste, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Artur J.M. Valente
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1309; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22031309
Received: 17 December 2020 / Revised: 16 January 2021 / Accepted: 22 January 2021 / Published: 28 January 2021
Recently, generalized modules for membrane antigens (GMMA) technology has been proposed as an alternative approach to traditional glycoconjugate vaccines for O-antigen delivery. Saccharide length is a well-known parameter that can impact the immune response induced by glycoconjugates both in terms of magnitude and quality. However, the criticality of O-antigen length on the immune response induced by GMMA-based vaccines has not been fully elucidated. Here, Shigella and Salmonella GMMA-producing strains were further mutated in order to display homogeneous polysaccharide populations of different sizes on a GMMA surface. Resulting GMMA were compared in mice immunization studies. Athymic nude mice were also used to investigate the involvement of T-cells in the immune response elicited. In contrast with what has been reported for traditional glycoconjugate vaccines and independent of the pathogen and the sugar structural characteristics, O-antigen length did not result in being a critical parameter for GMMA immunogenicity. This work supports the identification of critical quality attributes to optimize GMMA vaccine design and improve vaccine efficacy and gives insights on the nature of the immune response induced by GMMA. View Full-Text
Keywords: GMMA; O-antigen; vaccine; saccharide length; T-independent; Shigella; Salmonella GMMA; O-antigen; vaccine; saccharide length; T-independent; Shigella; Salmonella
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gasperini, G.; Raso, M.M.; Arato, V.; Aruta, M.G.; Cescutti, P.; Necchi, F.; Micoli, F. Effect of O-Antigen Chain Length Regulation on the Immunogenicity of Shigella and Salmonella Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 1309. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22031309

AMA Style

Gasperini G, Raso MM, Arato V, Aruta MG, Cescutti P, Necchi F, Micoli F. Effect of O-Antigen Chain Length Regulation on the Immunogenicity of Shigella and Salmonella Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA). International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(3):1309. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22031309

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gasperini, Gianmarco, Maria M. Raso, Vanessa Arato, Maria G. Aruta, Paola Cescutti, Francesca Necchi, and Francesca Micoli. 2021. "Effect of O-Antigen Chain Length Regulation on the Immunogenicity of Shigella and Salmonella Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA)" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 3: 1309. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22031309

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