Next Article in Journal
MC38 Tumors Induce Musculoskeletal Defects in Colorectal Cancer
Previous Article in Journal
Novel Transcript Discovery Expands the Repertoire of Pathologically-Associated, Long Non-Coding RNAs in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Metabolism of Melatonin Synthesis-Related Indoles in the Turkey Pineal Organ and Its Modification by Monochromatic Light
Review

Melatonin: From Pharmacokinetics to Clinical Use in Autism Spectrum Disorder

1
Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology Department, CHU Rennes, 35033 Rennes, France
2
Inserm, CIC 1414 (Clinical Investigation Center), 35033 Rennes, France
3
Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
4
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Strasbourg University Hospitals, 67000 Strasbourg, France
5
CNRS UPR 3212, Institute for Cellular and Integrative Neurosciences, 67000 Strasbourg, France
6
Sleep Disorders Center & CIRCSom (International Research Center for ChronoSomnology), Strasbourg University Hospital, 67000 Strasbourg, France
7
Neurim Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Tel Aviv 69710, Israel
8
Integrative Neuroscience and Cognition Center (INCC), CNRS UMR 8002 and University of Paris, 75006 Paris, France
9
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department, Robert Debré Hospital and University of Paris, 75019 Paris, France
10
Laboratoire d’Hormonologie, Inserm U846, Centre de Médecine Nucléaire, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 69677 Bron, France
11
School of Medicine of Rennes, University of Rennes 1, 35000 Rennes, France
12
Pôle Hospitalo-Universitaire de Psychiatrie de l’Enfant et de l’Adolescent (PHUPEA), Université de Rennes 1 and Centre Hospitalier Guillaume-Régnier, 35000 Rennes, France
13
Pediatric Sleep Unit, Inserm U1028, University of Lyon 1, 69000 Lyon, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Juan C. Mayo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1490; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22031490
Received: 9 September 2020 / Revised: 12 October 2020 / Accepted: 13 October 2020 / Published: 2 February 2021
The role of melatonin has been extensively investigated in pathophysiological conditions, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reduced melatonin secretion has been reported in ASD and led to many clinical trials using immediate-release and prolonged-release oral formulations of melatonin. However, melatonin’s effects in ASD and the choice of formulation type require further study. Therapeutic benefits of melatonin on sleep disorders in ASD were observed, notably on sleep latency and sleep quality. Importantly, melatonin may also have a role in improving autistic behavioral impairments. The objective of this article is to review factors influencing treatment response and possible side effects following melatonin administration. It appears that the effects of exposure to exogenous melatonin are dependent on age, sex, route and time of administration, formulation type, dose, and association with several substances (such as tobacco or contraceptive pills). In addition, no major melatonin-related adverse effect was described in typical development and ASD. In conclusion, melatonin represents currently a well-validated and tolerated treatment for sleep disorders in children and adolescents with ASD. A more thorough consideration of factors influencing melatonin pharmacokinetics could illuminate the best use of melatonin in this population. Future studies are required in ASD to explore further dose-effect relationships of melatonin on sleep problems and autistic behavioral impairments. View Full-Text
Keywords: melatonin; circadian rhythm; pharmacokinetics; autism; autism spectrum disorder (ASD); autistic behavioral impairments; concentration-effect relationship; dose-response effect; tolerability; analytical variability melatonin; circadian rhythm; pharmacokinetics; autism; autism spectrum disorder (ASD); autistic behavioral impairments; concentration-effect relationship; dose-response effect; tolerability; analytical variability
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Lalanne, S.; Fougerou-Leurent, C.; Anderson, G.M.; Schroder, C.M.; Nir, T.; Chokron, S.; Delorme, R.; Claustrat, B.; Bellissant, E.; Kermarrec, S.; Franco, P.; Denis, L.; Tordjman, S. Melatonin: From Pharmacokinetics to Clinical Use in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 1490. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22031490

AMA Style

Lalanne S, Fougerou-Leurent C, Anderson GM, Schroder CM, Nir T, Chokron S, Delorme R, Claustrat B, Bellissant E, Kermarrec S, Franco P, Denis L, Tordjman S. Melatonin: From Pharmacokinetics to Clinical Use in Autism Spectrum Disorder. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(3):1490. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22031490

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lalanne, Sébastien, Claire Fougerou-Leurent, George M. Anderson, Carmen M. Schroder, Tali Nir, Sylvie Chokron, Richard Delorme, Bruno Claustrat, Eric Bellissant, Solenn Kermarrec, Patricia Franco, Laure Denis, and Sylvie Tordjman. 2021. "Melatonin: From Pharmacokinetics to Clinical Use in Autism Spectrum Disorder" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 3: 1490. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22031490

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop