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Article

Exosomes Secreted from Amniotic Membrane Contribute to Its Anti-Fibrotic Activity

1
Laboratory for Biomaterials Research, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, 145 Bevier Rd., Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
2
Smith & Nephew, 7015 Albert Einstein Drive, Columbia, MD 21046, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Allison Cowin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 2055; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22042055
Received: 24 January 2021 / Revised: 16 February 2021 / Accepted: 17 February 2021 / Published: 19 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Innovations in Wound Healing and Repair 2.0)
Amniotic membranes (AM) have anti-fibrotic activity. Exosomes (nano-sized vesicles) function as conduits for intercellular transfer and contain all the necessary components to induce the resolution of fibrosis. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the anti-fibrotic activity of AM is mediated by exosomes. AM-derived exosomes or amniotic stromal cell-derived exosomes were isolated and characterized. Anti-fibrotic activity of exosomes was evaluated using human hepatic stellate cells (LX-2), an in vitro model of fibrosis. Exosomes isolated from AM tissue-conditioned media had an average size of 75 nm. Exosomes significantly inhibited the proliferation of TGFβ1-activated LX-2 but had no effect on the proliferation of non-activated LX-2 cells. Exosomes also reduced the migration of LX-2 in a scratch wound assay. Furthermore, exosomes reduced the gene expression of pro-fibrotic markers such as COL1A1, ACTA, and TGFβ1 in LX-2 cells. Interestingly, exosomes isolated from AM tissue under hypoxic conditions seemed to show a stronger anti-fibrotic activity than exosomes isolated from tissue under normoxic conditions. Exosomes released by in vitro cultured AM stromal cells were smaller in size compared with tissue exosomes and also showed anti-fibrotic activity on LX-2 cells. In conclusion, AM-tissue-released exosomes contribute to the anti-fibrotic activity of AM. This is the first report of isolation, characterization, and functional evaluation of exosomes derived from amniotic tissues with the direct comparison between tissue-derived exosomes and cultured cell-derived exosomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: amniotic membrane; exosomes; LX-2; anti-fibrotic activity; collagen I amniotic membrane; exosomes; LX-2; anti-fibrotic activity; collagen I
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mao, Y.; Jacob, V.; Singal, A.; Lei, S.; Park, M.S.; Lima, M.R.N.; Li, C.; Dhall, S.; Sathyamoorthy, M.; Kohn, J. Exosomes Secreted from Amniotic Membrane Contribute to Its Anti-Fibrotic Activity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 2055. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22042055

AMA Style

Mao Y, Jacob V, Singal A, Lei S, Park MS, Lima MRN, Li C, Dhall S, Sathyamoorthy M, Kohn J. Exosomes Secreted from Amniotic Membrane Contribute to Its Anti-Fibrotic Activity. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(4):2055. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22042055

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mao, Yong, Vimal Jacob, Amit Singal, Shunyao Lei, Min S. Park, Mariana R.N. Lima, Chaoyang Li, Sandeep Dhall, Malathi Sathyamoorthy, and Joachim Kohn. 2021. "Exosomes Secreted from Amniotic Membrane Contribute to Its Anti-Fibrotic Activity" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 4: 2055. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22042055

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