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Article

Salivary Outer Membrane Vesicles and DNA Methylation of Small Extracellular Vesicles as Biomarkers for Periodontal Status: A Pilot Study

1
School of Dentistry, Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4006, Australia
2
Epigenetics Nanodiagnostic and Therapeutic Group, Center for Oral-Facial Regeneration, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction (COR3), School of Dentistry, Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4006, Australia
3
School of Dentistry, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
4
Exosome Biology Laboratory, Centre for Clinical Diagnostics, The University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research, Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4029, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alberto Spisni
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(5), 2423; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22052423
Received: 3 February 2021 / Revised: 23 February 2021 / Accepted: 24 February 2021 / Published: 28 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Saliva as a Source of Biomarkers for Oral Diseases)
Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease, associated with a microbial dysbiosis. Early detection using salivary small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) biomarkers may facilitate timely prevention. sEVs derived from different species (i.e., humans, bacteria) are expected to circulate in saliva. This pilot study recruited 22 participants (seven periodontal healthy, seven gingivitis and eight periodontitis) and salivary sEVs were isolated using the size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) method. The healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis groups were compared in terms of salivary sEVs in the CD9+ sEV subpopulation, Gram-negative bacteria-enriched lipopolysaccharide (LPS+) outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) and global DNA methylation pattern of 5-methylcytosine (5mC), 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and N6-Methyladenosine (m6dA). It was found that LPS+ OMVs, global 5mC methylation and four periodontal pathogens (T. denticola, E. corrodens, P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum) that secreted OMVs were significantly increased in periodontitis sEVs compared to those from healthy groups. These differences were more pronounced in sEVs than the whole saliva and were more superior in distinguishing periodontitis than gingivitis, in comparison to healthy patients. Of note, global 5mC hypermethylation in salivary sEVs can distinguish periodontitis patients from both healthy controls and gingivitis patients with high sensitivity and specificity (AUC = 1). The research findings suggest that assessing global sEV methylation may be a useful biomarker for periodontitis. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacterial outer membrane vesicles; global DNA methylation; small extracellular vesicles; periodontitis bacterial outer membrane vesicles; global DNA methylation; small extracellular vesicles; periodontitis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Han, P.; Bartold, P.M.; Salomon, C.; Ivanovski, S. Salivary Outer Membrane Vesicles and DNA Methylation of Small Extracellular Vesicles as Biomarkers for Periodontal Status: A Pilot Study. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 2423. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22052423

AMA Style

Han P, Bartold PM, Salomon C, Ivanovski S. Salivary Outer Membrane Vesicles and DNA Methylation of Small Extracellular Vesicles as Biomarkers for Periodontal Status: A Pilot Study. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(5):2423. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22052423

Chicago/Turabian Style

Han, Pingping, Peter M. Bartold, Carlos Salomon, and Sašo Ivanovski. 2021. "Salivary Outer Membrane Vesicles and DNA Methylation of Small Extracellular Vesicles as Biomarkers for Periodontal Status: A Pilot Study" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 5: 2423. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22052423

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