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Article

3D Environment Is Required In Vitro to Demonstrate Altered Bone Metabolism Characteristic for Type 2 Diabetics

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Siegfried Weller Research Institute, BG Trauma Center Tübingen, Department of Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany
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Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Tübingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany
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Radiology Department, BG Trauma Center Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alberto Falchetti
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(6), 2925; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22062925
Received: 19 February 2021 / Revised: 9 March 2021 / Accepted: 10 March 2021 / Published: 13 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Osteoporosis)
A large British study, with almost 3000 patients, identified diabetes as main risk factor for delayed and nonunion fracture healing, the treatment of which causes large costs for the health system. In the past years, much progress has been made to treat common complications in diabetics. However, there is still a lack of advanced strategies to treat diabetic bone diseases. To develop such therapeutic strategies, mechanisms leading to massive bone alterations in diabetics have to be well understood. We herein describe an in vitro model displaying bone metabolism frequently observed in diabetics. The model is based on osteoblastic SaOS-2 cells, which in direct coculture, stimulate THP-1 cells to form osteoclasts. While in conventional 2D cocultures formation of mineralized matrix is decreased under pre-/diabetic conditions, formation of mineralized matrix is increased in 3D cocultures. Furthermore, we demonstrate a matrix stability of the 3D carrier that is decreased under pre-/diabetic conditions, resembling the in vivo situation in type 2 diabetics. In summary, our results show that a 3D environment is required in this in vitro model to mimic alterations in bone metabolism characteristic for pre-/diabetes. The ability to measure both osteoblast and osteoclast function, and their effect on mineralization and stability of the 3D carrier offers the possibility to use this model also for other purposes, e.g., drug screenings. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes mellitus; bone metabolism; cryogel; scaffold; 3D coculture; osteoblast; osteoclast diabetes mellitus; bone metabolism; cryogel; scaffold; 3D coculture; osteoblast; osteoclast
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MDPI and ACS Style

Häussling, V.; Aspera-Werz, R.H.; Rinderknecht, H.; Springer, F.; Arnscheidt, C.; Menger, M.M.; Histing, T.; Nussler, A.K.; Ehnert, S. 3D Environment Is Required In Vitro to Demonstrate Altered Bone Metabolism Characteristic for Type 2 Diabetics. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 2925. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22062925

AMA Style

Häussling V, Aspera-Werz RH, Rinderknecht H, Springer F, Arnscheidt C, Menger MM, Histing T, Nussler AK, Ehnert S. 3D Environment Is Required In Vitro to Demonstrate Altered Bone Metabolism Characteristic for Type 2 Diabetics. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(6):2925. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22062925

Chicago/Turabian Style

Häussling, Victor, Romina H. Aspera-Werz, Helen Rinderknecht, Fabian Springer, Christian Arnscheidt, Maximilian M. Menger, Tina Histing, Andreas K. Nussler, and Sabrina Ehnert. 2021. "3D Environment Is Required In Vitro to Demonstrate Altered Bone Metabolism Characteristic for Type 2 Diabetics" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 6: 2925. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22062925

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