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Article

Gouda Cheese with Modified Content of β-Casein as a Source of Peptides with ACE- and DPP-IV-Inhibiting Bioactivity: A Study Based on In Silico and In Vitro Protocol

1
Chair of Food Biochemistry, Faculty of Food Science, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Pl. Cieszyński 1, 10-726 Olsztyn-Kortowo, Poland
2
Department of Dairy Science and Quality Management, Faculty of Food Science, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 7, 10-719 Olsztyn-Kortowo, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Blanca Hernández-Ledesma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(6), 2949; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22062949
Received: 3 February 2021 / Revised: 11 March 2021 / Accepted: 11 March 2021 / Published: 14 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peptides for Health Benefits 2020)
In silico and in vitro methods were used to analyze ACE- and DPP-IV-inhibiting potential of Gouda cheese with a modified content of β-casein. Firstly, the BIOPEP-UWM database was used to predict the presence of ACE and DPP-IV inhibitors in casein sequences. Then, the following Gouda cheeses were produced: with decreased, increased, and normative content of β-casein after 1 and 60 days of ripening each (six variants in total). Finally, determination of the ACE/DPP-IV-inhibitory activity and the identification of peptides in respective Gouda-derived water-soluble extracts were carried out. The identification analyses were supported with in silico calculations, i.e., heatmaps and quantitative parameters. All Gouda variants exhibited comparable ACE inhibition, whereas DPP-IV inhibition was more diversified among the samples. The samples derived from Gouda with the increased content of β-casein (both stages of ripening) had the highest DPP-IV-inhibiting potency compared to the same samples measured for ACE inhibition. Regardless of the results concerning ACE and DPP-IV inhibition among the cheese samples, the heatmap showed that the latter bioactivity was predominant in all Gouda variants, presumably because it was based on the qualitative approach (i.e., peptide presence in the sample). Our heatmap did not include the bioactivity of a single peptide as well as its quantity in the sample. In turn, the quantitative parameters showed that the best sources of ACE/DPP-IV inhibitors were all Gouda-derived extracts obtained after 60 days of the ripening. Although our protocol was efficient in showing some regularities among Gouda cheese variants, in vivo studies are recommended for more extensive investigations of this subject. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioinformatics; BIOPEP-UWM database; bioactive peptides; β-casein; Gouda cheese bioinformatics; BIOPEP-UWM database; bioactive peptides; β-casein; Gouda cheese
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MDPI and ACS Style

Iwaniak, A.; Mogut, D.; Minkiewicz, P.; Żulewska, J.; Darewicz, M. Gouda Cheese with Modified Content of β-Casein as a Source of Peptides with ACE- and DPP-IV-Inhibiting Bioactivity: A Study Based on In Silico and In Vitro Protocol. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 2949. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22062949

AMA Style

Iwaniak A, Mogut D, Minkiewicz P, Żulewska J, Darewicz M. Gouda Cheese with Modified Content of β-Casein as a Source of Peptides with ACE- and DPP-IV-Inhibiting Bioactivity: A Study Based on In Silico and In Vitro Protocol. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(6):2949. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22062949

Chicago/Turabian Style

Iwaniak, Anna, Damir Mogut, Piotr Minkiewicz, Justyna Żulewska, and Małgorzata Darewicz. 2021. "Gouda Cheese with Modified Content of β-Casein as a Source of Peptides with ACE- and DPP-IV-Inhibiting Bioactivity: A Study Based on In Silico and In Vitro Protocol" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 6: 2949. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22062949

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