Next Article in Journal
Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylase Deficiency: The Added Value of Biochemistry
Next Article in Special Issue
Comparison of Gut Bacterial Communities of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Reared on Different Host Plants
Previous Article in Journal
Mapping of Microglial Brain Region, Sex and Age Heterogeneity in Obesity
Article

Putative LysM Effectors Contribute to Fungal Lifestyle

1
Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Department of Marine Sciences and Applied Biology, University of Alicante, 03690 Alicante, Spain
2
Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Multidisciplinary Institute for Environmental Studies (MIES) Ramon Margalef, University of Alicante, 03690 Alicante, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Juan Francisco Martín
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(6), 3147; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22063147
Received: 1 February 2021 / Revised: 9 March 2021 / Accepted: 17 March 2021 / Published: 19 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Microbe Interaction 3.0)
Fungal LysM effector proteins can dampen plant host–defence responses, protecting hyphae from plant chitinases, but little is known on these effectors from nonpathogenic fungal endophytes. We found four putative LysM effectors in the genome of the endophytic nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (Pc123). All four genes encoding putative LysM effectors are expressed constitutively by the fungus. Additionally, the gene encoding Lys1—the smallest one—is the most expressed in banana roots colonised by the fungus. Pc123 Lys1, 2 and 4 display high homology with those of other strains of the fungus and phylogenetically close entomopathogenic fungi. However, Pc123 Lys3 displays low homology with other fungi, but some similarities are found in saprophytes. This suggests evolutionary divergence in Pc123 LysM effectors. Additionally, molecular docking shows that the NAcGl binding sites of Pc123 Lys 2, 3 and 4 are adjacent to an alpha helix. Putative LysM effectors from fungal endophytes, such as Pc123, differ from those of plant pathogenic fungi. LysM motifs from endophytic fungi show clear conservation of cysteines in Positions 13, 51 and 63, unlike those of plant pathogens. LysM effectors could therefore be associated with the lifestyle of a fungus and give us a clue of how organisms could behave in different environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: biocontrol agents; endophytism; fungal effectors; fungal lifestyles; LysM motifs; pathogenicity; phylogeny; Pochonia chlamydosporia biocontrol agents; endophytism; fungal effectors; fungal lifestyles; LysM motifs; pathogenicity; phylogeny; Pochonia chlamydosporia
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Suarez-Fernandez, M.; Aragon-Perez, A.; Lopez-Llorca, L.V.; Lopez-Moya, F. Putative LysM Effectors Contribute to Fungal Lifestyle. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 3147. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22063147

AMA Style

Suarez-Fernandez M, Aragon-Perez A, Lopez-Llorca LV, Lopez-Moya F. Putative LysM Effectors Contribute to Fungal Lifestyle. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(6):3147. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22063147

Chicago/Turabian Style

Suarez-Fernandez, Marta, Ana Aragon-Perez, Luis V. Lopez-Llorca, and Federico Lopez-Moya. 2021. "Putative LysM Effectors Contribute to Fungal Lifestyle" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 6: 3147. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22063147

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop