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Review

Vitamin A and Retinoids in Bladder Cancer Chemoprevention and Treatment: A Narrative Review of Current Evidence, Challenges and Future Prospects

1
Institute of Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
Institute of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mariarosaria Boccellino
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(7), 3510; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22073510
Received: 25 February 2021 / Revised: 19 March 2021 / Accepted: 23 March 2021 / Published: 29 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Natural Antioxidants)
Bladder cancer (BC) is the tenth most common cancer worldwide with a high recurrence rate, morbidity and mortality. Therefore, chemoprevention and improved treatment of BC are of paramount importance. Epidemiological studies suggest that adequate vitamin A intake may be associated with reduced BC risk. In addition, retinoids, natural and synthetic derivatives of vitamin A, are intensively studied in cancer research due to their antioxidant properties and their ability to regulate cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Findings from in vivo and in vitro models of BC show great potential for the use of retinoids in the chemoprevention and treatment of BC. However, translation to the clinical practice is limited. In this narrative review we discuss: (i) vitamin A and retinoid metabolism and retinoic acid signalling, (ii) the pathobiology of BC and the need for chemoprevention, (iii) the epidemiological evidence for the role of dietary vitamin A in BC, (iv) mechanistic insights obtained from in vivo and in vitro models, (v) clinical trials of retinoids and the limitations of retinoid use, (vi) novel systems of retinoid delivery, and (vii) components of retinoid signalling pathways as potential novel therapeutic targets. View Full-Text
Keywords: bladder cancer; vitamin A; retinoids; retinoic acid signalling; chemoprevention; treatment; experimental bladder cancer models; clinical trials; delivery systems; novel targets bladder cancer; vitamin A; retinoids; retinoic acid signalling; chemoprevention; treatment; experimental bladder cancer models; clinical trials; delivery systems; novel targets
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tratnjek, L.; Jeruc, J.; Romih, R.; Zupančič, D. Vitamin A and Retinoids in Bladder Cancer Chemoprevention and Treatment: A Narrative Review of Current Evidence, Challenges and Future Prospects. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 3510. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22073510

AMA Style

Tratnjek L, Jeruc J, Romih R, Zupančič D. Vitamin A and Retinoids in Bladder Cancer Chemoprevention and Treatment: A Narrative Review of Current Evidence, Challenges and Future Prospects. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(7):3510. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22073510

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tratnjek, Larisa, Jera Jeruc, Rok Romih, and Daša Zupančič. 2021. "Vitamin A and Retinoids in Bladder Cancer Chemoprevention and Treatment: A Narrative Review of Current Evidence, Challenges and Future Prospects" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 7: 3510. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22073510

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