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Bacterial Membrane Vesicles in Pneumonia: From Mediators of Virulence to Innovative Vaccine Candidates

1
Institute of Physiology, Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany
2
Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), 10178 Berlin, Germany
3
DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Berlin, 10117 Berlin, Germany
4
The Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science at St. Michael’s, Toronto, ON M5B 1X1, Canada
5
Departments of Surgery and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Andreas Spittler
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(8), 3858; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22083858
Received: 14 March 2021 / Revised: 3 April 2021 / Accepted: 6 April 2021 / Published: 8 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles in Inflammation)
Pneumonia due to respiratory infection with most prominently bacteria, but also viruses, fungi, or parasites is the leading cause of death worldwide among all infectious disease in both adults and infants. The introduction of modern antibiotic treatment regimens and vaccine strategies has helped to lower the burden of bacterial pneumonia, yet due to the unavailability or refusal of vaccines and antimicrobials in parts of the global population, the rise of multidrug resistant pathogens, and high fatality rates even in patients treated with appropriate antibiotics pneumonia remains a global threat. As such, a better understanding of pathogen virulence on the one, and the development of innovative vaccine strategies on the other hand are once again in dire need in the perennial fight of men against microbes. Recent data show that the secretome of bacteria consists not only of soluble mediators of virulence but also to a significant proportion of extracellular vesicles—lipid bilayer-delimited particles that form integral mediators of intercellular communication. Extracellular vesicles are released from cells of all kinds of organisms, including both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in which case they are commonly termed outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) and membrane vesicles (MVs), respectively. (O)MVs can trigger inflammatory responses to specific pathogens including S. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa, and L. pneumophila and as such, mediate bacterial virulence in pneumonia by challenging the host respiratory epithelium and cellular and humoral immunity. In parallel, however, (O)MVs have recently emerged as auspicious vaccine candidates due to their natural antigenicity and favorable biochemical properties. First studies highlight the efficacy of such vaccines in animal models exposed to (O)MVs from B. pertussis, S. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, and K. pneumoniae. An advanced and balanced recognition of both the detrimental effects of (O)MVs and their immunogenic potential could pave the way to novel treatment strategies in pneumonia and effective preventive approaches. View Full-Text
Keywords: pneumonia; lower respiratory tract infection; extracellular vesicles; outer membrane vesicles; membrane vesicles; vaccine pneumonia; lower respiratory tract infection; extracellular vesicles; outer membrane vesicles; membrane vesicles; vaccine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Behrens, F.; Funk-Hilsdorf, T.C.; Kuebler, W.M.; Simmons, S. Bacterial Membrane Vesicles in Pneumonia: From Mediators of Virulence to Innovative Vaccine Candidates. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 3858. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22083858

AMA Style

Behrens F, Funk-Hilsdorf TC, Kuebler WM, Simmons S. Bacterial Membrane Vesicles in Pneumonia: From Mediators of Virulence to Innovative Vaccine Candidates. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(8):3858. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22083858

Chicago/Turabian Style

Behrens, Felix, Teresa C. Funk-Hilsdorf, Wolfgang M. Kuebler, and Szandor Simmons. 2021. "Bacterial Membrane Vesicles in Pneumonia: From Mediators of Virulence to Innovative Vaccine Candidates" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 8: 3858. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22083858

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